RESEARCH

AR/VR

Facebook research at ECCV 2020

August 21, 2020

Facebook researchers will also be organizing and participating in virtual tutorials and workshops throughout the week. The workshop OpenEyes: Eye Gaze in AR, VR, and in the Wild is organized by Facebook Reality Labs researchers in collaboration with other academics in the field. Facebook AI Research is also organizing a tutorial on Visual Recognition for Images, Video, and 3D to discuss advancements and approaches in visual recognition tasks for different input modalities. As part of the Sign Language Recognition, Translation & Production Workshop held in conjunction with ECCV, we are also presenting How2Sign, a multimodal data set of 80 hours of signing videos in American Sign Language with accompanying annotations. Progress in the areas of automatic sign language recognition, generation, and translation has been hindered by the absence of large annotated data sets, especially continuous sign language datasets that are annotated and segmented at the sentence or utterance level. We hope How2Sign will accelerate research in this area.

For more information on Facebook’s presence at ECCV this year, from August 23 to 28, check out the Facebook at ECCV page.

Facebook research being presented at ECCV 2020

A Metric Learning Reality Check

Kevin Musgrave, Serge Belongie, Ser-Nam Lim

Deep metric learning papers from the past four years have consistently claimed great advances in accuracy, often more than doubling the performance of decade-old methods. In this paper, we take a closer look at the field to see if this is actually true. We find flaws in the experimental setup of these papers and propose a new way to evaluate metric learning algorithms. Finally, we present experimental results that show that the improvements over time have been marginal at best.

Adversarial continual learning

Sayna Ebrahimi, Franziska Meier, Roberto Calandra, Trevor Darrell, Marcus Rohrbach

Continual learning aims to learn new tasks without forgetting previously learned ones. We hypothesize that representations learned to solve each task in a sequence have a shared structure while containing some task-specific properties. We show that shared features are significantly less prone to forgetting and propose a novel hybrid continual learning framework that learns a disjoint representation for task-invariant and task-specific features required to solve a sequence of tasks. Our model combines architecture growth to prevent forgetting of task-specific skills and an experience replay approach to preserve shared skills. We demonstrate that our hybrid approach is effective in avoiding forgetting and show it is superior to both architecture-based and memory-based approaches on class incrementally learning of a single data set as well as a sequence of multiple data sets in image classification. Our code is available here.

Aligning videos in space and time

Senthil Purushwalkam, Tian Ye, Saurabh Gupta, Abhinav Gupta

In this paper, we focus on the task of extracting visual correspondences across videos. Given a query video clip from an action class, we aim to align it with training videos in space and time. Obtaining training data for such a fine-grained alignment task is challenging and often ambiguous. Hence, we propose a novel alignment procedure that learns such correspondence in space and time via cross video cycle-consistency. During training, given a pair of videos, we compute cycles that connect patches in a given frame in the first video by matching through frames in the second video. Cycles that connect overlapping patches together are encouraged to score higher than cycles that connect non-overlapping patches. Our experiments on the Penn Action and Pouring data sets demonstrate that the proposed method can successfully learn to correspond semantically similar patches across videos, and learns representations that are sensitive to object and action states.

Are labels necessary in neural architecture search?

Chenxi Liu, Piotr Dollar, Kaiming He, Ross Girshick, Alan Yuille, Saining Xie

Existing neural network architectures in computer vision — whether designed by humans or by machines — were typically found using both images and their associated labels. In this paper, we ask the question: Can we find high-quality neural architectures using only images but no human-annotated labels? To answer this question, we first define a new setup called Unsupervised Neural Architecture Search (UnNAS). We then conduct two sets of experiments. In sample-based experiments, we train a large number (500) of diverse architectures with either supervised or unsupervised objectives, and find that the architecture rankings produced with and without labels are highly correlated. In search-based experiments, we run a well-established NAS algorithm (DARTS) using various unsupervised objectives, and report that the architectures searched without labels can be competitive to their counterparts searched with labels. Together, these results reveal the potentially surprising finding that labels are not necessary, and the image statistics alone may be sufficient to identify good neural architectures.

Attention-based query expansion learning

Albert Gordo, Filip Radenovic, Tamara Berg

Query expansion is a technique widely used in image search consisting in combining highly ranked images from an original query into an expanded query that is then reissued, generally leading to increased recall and precision. An important aspect of query expansion is choosing an appropriate way to combine the images into a new query. Interestingly, despite the undeniable empirical success of query expansion, ad-hoc methods with different caveats have dominated the landscape, and not a lot of research has been done on learning how to do query expansion. In this paper we propose a more principled framework to query expansion, where one trains, in a discriminative manner, a model that learns how images should be aggregated to form the expanded query. Within this framework, we propose a model that leverages a self-attention mechanism to effectively learn how to transfer information between the different images before aggregating them. Our approach obtains higher accuracy than existing approaches on standard benchmarks. More important, our approach is the only one that consistently shows high accuracy under different regimes, overcoming caveats of existing methods.

Beyond the nav-graph: Vision-and-language navigation in continuous environments

Jacob Krantz, Erik Wijmans, Arjun Majumdar, Dhruv Batra, Stefan Lee

We develop a language-guided navigation task set in a continuous 3D environment where agents must execute low-level actions to follow natural language navigation directions. By being situated in continuous environments, this setting lifts a number of assumptions implicit in prior work that represents environments as a sparse graph of panoramas with edges corresponding to navigability. Specifically, our setting drops the presumptions of known environment topologies, short-range oracle navigation, and perfect agent localization. To contextualize this new task, we develop models that mirror many of the advances made in prior settings as well as single-modality baselines. While some transfer, we find significantly lower absolute performance in the continuous setting — suggesting that performance in prior “navigation-graph” settings may be inflated by the strong implicit assumptions. Code at jacobkrantz.github.io/vlnce

Burst denoising via temporally shifted wavelet transforms

Denis Demandoix, Kevin Matzen, Priyam Chatterjee, Xuejian Rong, Yingli Tian

Mobile photography has made great strides in recent years. However, low-light imaging still remains a challenge. Long exposures can improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but undesirable motion blur can occur when capturing dynamic scenes. As a result, imaging pipelines often rely on computational photography to improve SNR by fusing multiple short exposures. Recent deep neural network-based methods have been shown to generate visually pleasing results by fusing these exposures in a sophisticated manner, but often at a higher computational cost. We propose an end-to-end trainable burst denoising pipeline which jointly captures high-resolution and high-frequency deep features derived from wavelet transforms. In our model, precious local details are preserved in high-frequency sub-band features to enhance the final perceptual quality, while the low-frequency sub-band features carry structural information for faithful reconstruction and final objective quality. The model is designed to accommodate variable-length burst captures via temporal feature shifting while incurring only marginal computational overhead. Lastly, we train our model with a realistic noise model for the generalization to real environments. Using these techniques, our method attains state-of-the-art performance on perceptual quality, while being an order of magnitude faster.

ContactPose: A data set of grasps with object contact and hand pose

Samarth Brahmbhatt, Chengcheng Tang, Christopher D. Twigg, Charles C. Kemp, James Hays

Grasping is natural for humans. However, it involves complex hand configurations and soft tissue deformation that can result in complicated regions of contact between the hand and the object. Understanding and modeling this contact can potentially improve hand models, AR/VR experiences, and robotic grasping. Yet, we currently lack data sets of hand-object contact paired with other data modalities, which is crucial for developing and evaluating contact modeling techniques. We introduce ContactPose, the first data set of hand-object contact paired with hand pose, object pose, and RGB-D images. ContactPose has 2,306 unique grasps of 25 household objects grasped with 2 functional intents by 50 participants, and more than 2.9M RGB-D grasp images. Analysis of ContactPose data reveals interesting relationships between hand pose and contact. We use this data to rigorously evaluate various data representations, heuristics from the literature, and learning methods for contact modeling. Data, code, and trained models are available at https://contactpose.cc.gatech.edu.

Curriculum Manager for Source Selection in Multi-Source Domain Adaptation

Luyu Yang, Yogesh Balaji, Ser-Nam Lim, Abhinav Shrivastava

The performance of Multi-Source Unsupervised Domain Adaptation depends significantly on the effectiveness of transfer from labeled source domain samples. In this paper, we proposed an adversarial agent that learns a dynamic curriculum for source samples, called Curriculum Manager for Source Selection (CMSS). The Curriculum Manager, an independent network module, constantly updates the curriculum during training, and iteratively learns which domains or samples are best suited for aligning to the target. The intuition behind this is to force the Curriculum Manager to constantly remeasure the transferability of latent domains over time to adversarially raise the error rate of the domain discriminator. CMSS does not require any knowledge of the domain labels, yet it outperforms other methods on four well-known benchmarks by significant margins. We also provide interpretable results that shed light on the proposed method.

Deep Local Shapes: Learning local SDF priors for detailed 3D reconstruction

Roham Chabra, Jan E. Lenssen, Eddy Ilg, Tanner Schmidt, Julian Straub, Steven Lovegrove, Richard Newcombe

Efficiently reconstructing complex and intricate surfaces at scale is a long-standing goal in machine perception. To address this problem we introduce Deep Local Shapes (DeepLS), a deep shape representation that enables encoding and reconstruction of high-quality 3D shapes without prohibitive memory requirements. DeepLS replaces the dense volumetric signed distance function (SDF) representation used in traditional surface reconstruction systems with a set of locally learned continuous SDFs defined by a neural network, inspired by recent work such as DeepSDF. Unlike DeepSDF, which represents an object-level SDF with a neural network and a single latent code, we store a grid of independent latent codes, each responsible for storing information about surfaces in a small local neighborhood. This decomposition of scenes into local shapes simplifies the prior distribution that the network must learn, and also enables efficient inference. We demonstrate the effectiveness and generalization power of DeepLS by showing object shape encoding and reconstructions of full scenes, where DeepLS delivers high compression, accuracy, and local shape completion.

DeepHandMesh: Weakly supervised deep encoder and decoder framework for high-fidelity hand mesh modeling

Gyeongsik Moon, Takaaki Shiratori, Kyoung Mu Lee

Human hands play a central role in interacting with other people and objects. For realistic replication of such hand motions, high-fidelity hand meshes have to be reconstructed. In this study, we firstly propose DeepHandMesh, a weakly supervised deep encoder-decoder framework for high-fidelity hand mesh modeling. We design our system to be trained in an end-to-end and weakly supervised manner; therefore, it does not require groundtruth meshes. Instead, it relies on weaker supervisions such as 3D joint coordinates and multi-view depth maps, which are easier to get than groundtruth meshes and are not dependent on the mesh topology. Although the proposed DeepHandMesh is trained in a weakly supervised way, it provides significantly more realistic hand mesh than previous fully supervised hand models. Our newly introduced penetration avoidance loss further improves results by replicating physical interaction between hand parts. Finally, we demonstrate that our system can also be applied successfully to the 3D hand mesh estimation from general images. Our hand model, data set, and codes are publicly available.

Discrete point flow networks for efficient point cloud generation

Roman Klokov, Edmond Boyer, Jakob Verbeek

Generative models have proven effective at modeling 3D shapes and their statistical variations. In this paper we investigate their application to point clouds, a 3D shape representation widely used in computer vision for which, however, only few generative models have yet been proposed. We introduce a latent variable model that builds on normalizing flows with affine coupling layers to generate 3D point clouds of an arbitrary size given a latent shape representation. To evaluate its benefits for shape modeling we apply this model for generation, autoencoding, and single-view shape reconstruction tasks. We improve over recent GAN-based models in terms of most metrics that assess generation and autoencoding. Compared to recent work based on continuous flows, our model offers a significant speedup in both training and inference times for similar or better performance. For single-view shape reconstruction we also obtain results on par with state-of-the-art voxel, point cloud, and mesh-based methods.

End-to-end object detection with transformers

Nicolas Carion, Francisco Massa, Gabriel Synnaeve, Nicolas Usunier, Alexander Kirillov, Sergey Zagoruyko

We present a new method that views object detection as a direct set prediction problem. Our approach streamlines the detection pipeline, effectively removing the need for many hand-designed components like a non-maximum suppression procedure or anchor generation that explicitly encode our prior knowledge about the task. The main ingredients of the new framework, called DEtection TRansformer or DETR, are a set-based global loss that forces unique predictions via bipartite matching, and a transformer encoder-decoder architecture. Given a fixed small set of learned object queries, DETR reasons about the relations of the objects and the global image context to directly output the final set of predictions in parallel. The new model is conceptually simple and does not require a specialized library, unlike many other modern detectors. DETR demonstrates accuracy and runtime performance on par with the well-established and highly optimized Faster RCNN baseline on the challenging COCO object detection data set. Moreover, DETR can be easily generalized to produce panoptic segmentation in a unified manner. We show that it significantly outperforms competitive baselines. Training code and pretrained models are available here.

Expressive telepresence via Modular Codec Avatars

Hang Chu, Shugao Ma, Fernando De la Torre, Sanja Fidler, Yaser Sheikh

VR telepresence consists of interacting with another human in a virtual space represented by an avatar. Today most avatars are cartoon-like, but soon the technology will allow video-realistic ones. This paper aims in this direction, and presents Modular Codec Avatars (MCA), a method to generate hyper-realistic faces driven by the cameras in the VR headset. MCA extends traditional Codec Avatars (CA) by replacing the holistic models with a learned modular representation. It is important to note that traditional person-specific CAs are learned from few training samples, and typically lack robustness as well as limited expressiveness when transferring facial expressions. MCAs solve these issues by learning a modulated adaptive blending of different facial components as well as an exemplar-based latent alignment. We demonstrate that MCA achieves improved expressiveness and robustness w.r.t to CA in a variety of real-world data sets and practical scenarios. Finally, we showcase new applications in VR telepresence enabled by the proposed model.

SF-Net: Single-frame supervision for temporal action localization

Fan Ma, Linchao Zhu, Yi Yang, Shengxin Zha, Gourab Kundu, Matt Feiszli, Zheng Shou

In this paper, we study an intermediate form of supervision, i.e., single-frame supervision, for temporal action localization (TAL). To obtain the single-frame supervision, the annotators are asked to identify only a single frame within the temporal window of an action. This can significantly reduce the labor cost of obtaining full supervision which requires annotating the action boundary. Compared to the weak supervision that only annotates the video-level label, the singleframe supervision introduces extra temporal action signals while maintaining low annotation overhead. To make full use of such single-frame supervision, we propose a unified system called SF-Net. First, we propose to predict an actionness score for each video frame. Along with a typical category score, the actionness score can provide comprehensive information about the occurrence of a potential action and aid the temporal boundary refinement during inference. Second, we mine pseudo action and background frames based on the single-frame annotations. We identify pseudo action frames by adaptively expanding each annotated single frame to its nearby, contextual frames and we mine pseudo background frames from all the unannotated frames across multiple videos. Together with the ground-truth labeled frames, these pseudo-labeled frames are further used for training the classifier. In extensive experiments on THUMOS14, GTEA, and BEOID, SF-Net significantly improves upon state-of-the-art weakly supervised methods in terms of both segment localization and single-frame localization. Notably, SF-Net achieves comparable results to its fully supervised counterpart which requires much more resource intensive annotations. The code is available at https://github.com/Flowerfan/SF-Net.

Geometric correspondence fields: Learned differentiable rendering for 3D pose refinement in the wild

Alexander Grabner, Yaming Wang, Peizhao Zhang, Peihong Guo, Tong Xiao, Peter Vajda, Peter M. Roth, Vincent Lepetit

We present a novel 3D pose refinement approach based on differentiable rendering for objects of arbitrary categories in the wild. In contrast to previous methods, we make two main contributions: First, instead of comparing real-world images and synthetic renderings in the RGB or mask space, we compare them in a feature space optimized for 3D pose refinement. Second, we introduce a novel differentiable renderer that learns to approximate the rasterization backward pass from data instead of relying on a hand-crafted algorithm. For this purpose, we predict deep cross-domain correspondences between RGB images and 3D model renderings in the form of what we call geometric correspondence fields. These correspondence fields serve as pixel-level gradients which are analytically propagated backward through the rendering pipeline to perform a gradient-based optimization directly on the 3D pose. In this way, we precisely align 3D models to objects in RGB images which results in significantly improved 3D pose estimates. We evaluate our approach on the challenging Pix3D data set and achieve up to 55 percent relative improvement compared to state-of-the-art refinement methods in multiple metrics.

Impact of base data set design on few-shot image classification

Markus Hofinger, Samuel Rota Bulò, Lorenzo Porzi, Arno Knapitsch, Thomas Pock, Peter Kontschieder

The quality and generality of deep image features is crucially determined by the data they have been trained on, but little is known about this often overlooked effect. In this paper, we systematically study the effect of variations in the training data by evaluating deep features trained on different image sets in a few-shot classification setting. The experimental protocol we define allows to explore key practical questions. What is the influence of the similarity between base and test classes? Given a fixed annotation budget, what is the optimal trade-off between the number of images per class and the number of classes? Given a fixed data set, can features be improved by splitting or combining different classes? Should simple or diverse classes be annotated? In a wide range of experiments, we provide clear answers to these questions on the miniImageNet, ImageNet and CUB-200 benchmarks. We also show how the base data set design can improve performance in few-shot classification more drastically than replacing a simple baseline by an advanced state of the art algorithm.

Improving optical flow on a pyramid level

Markus Hofinger, Samuel Rota Bulò, Lorenzo Porzi, Arno Knapitsch, Thomas Pock, Peter Kontschieder

In this work we review the coarse-to-fine spatial feature pyramid concept, which is used in state-of-the-art optical flow estimation networks to make exploration of the pixel flow search space computationally tractable and efficient. Within an individual pyramid level, we improve the cost volume construction process by departing from a warping- to a sampling-based strategy, which avoids ghosting and hence enables us to better preserve fine flow details. We further amplify the positive effects through a level-specific, loss max-pooling strategy that adaptively shifts the focus of the learning process on under-performing predictions. Our second contribution revises the gradient flow across pyramid levels. The typical operations performed at each pyramid level can lead to noisy, or even contradicting gradients across levels. We show and discuss how properly blocking some of these gradient components leads to improved convergence and ultimately better performance. Finally, we introduce a distillation concept to counteract the issue of catastrophic forgetting during finetuning and thus preserving knowledge over models sequentially trained on multiple data sets. Our findings are conceptually simple and easy to implement, yet result in compelling improvements on relevant error measures that we demonstrate via exhaustive ablations on data sets like Flying Chairs2, Flying Things, Sintel, and KITTI. We establish new state-of-the-art results on the challenging Sintel and KITTI 2012 test data sets, and even show the portability of our findings to different optical flow and depth from stereo approaches.

Improving Vision-and-Language Navigation with web image-text pairs

Arjun Majumbar, Ayush Shrivastava, Stefan Lee, Peter Anderson, Devi Parikh, Dhruv Batra

Following a navigation instruction such as “Walk down the stairs and stop at the brown sofa” requires embodied AI agents to ground referenced scene elements referenced (e.g., “stairs”) to visual content in the environment (pixels corresponding to “stairs”). We ask the following question — can we leverage abundant “disembodied” web-scraped vision-and-language corpora (e.g., Conceptual Captions) to learn the visual groundings that improve performance on a relatively data-starved embodied perception task (Vision-and-Language Navigation)? Specifically, we develop VLN-BERT, a visiolinguistic transformer-based model for scoring the compatibility between an instruction (“...stop at the brown sofa”) and a trajectory of panoramic RGB images captured by the agent. We demonstrate that pretraining VLN-BERT on image-text pairs from the web before fine-tuning on embodied path-instruction data significantly improves performance on VLN — outperforming prior state-of-the-art in the fully observed setting by 4 absolute percentage points on success rate. Ablations of our pretraining curriculum show each stage to be impactful — with their combination resulting in further gains.

InterHand2.6M: A new large-scale data set and baseline for 3D single and interacting hand pose estimation from a single RGB image

Gyeongsik Moon, Shoou-I Yu, He Wen, Takaaki Shiratori, Kyoung Mu Lee

Analysis of hand-hand interactions is a crucial step toward better understanding human behavior. However, most researches in 3D hand pose estimation have focused on the isolated single hand case. Therefore, we first propose (1) a large-scale data set, InterHand2.6M, and (2) a baseline network, InterNet, for 3D interacting hand pose estimation from a single RGB image. The proposed InterHand2.6M consists of 2.6M labeled single and interacting hand frames under various poses from multiple subjects. Our InterNet simultaneously performs 3D single and interacting hand pose estimation. In our experiments, we demonstrate big gains in 3D interacting hand pose estimation accuracy when leveraging the interacting hand data in InterHand2.6M. We also report the accuracy of InterNet on InterHand2.6M, which serves as a strong baseline for this new data set. Finally, we show 3D interacting hand pose estimation results from general images. Our code and data set are available.

Large-scale pretraining for visual dialog: A simple state-of-the-art baseline

Vishvak Murahari, Dhruv Batra, Devi Parikh, Abhishek Das

Prior work in visual dialog has focused on training deep neural models on VisDial in isolation. Instead, we present an approach to leverage pretraining on related vision-language data sets before transferring to visual dialog. We adapt the recently proposed ViLBERT model for multi-turn visually grounded conversations. Our model is pretrained on the Conceptual Captions and Visual Question Answering data sets, and finetuned on VisDial. Our best single model outperforms prior published work by > 1 percent absolute on NDCG and MRR.

Next, we find that additional finetuning using “dense” annotations in VisDial leads to even higher NDCG — more than 10 percent over our base model — but hurts MRR — more than 17 percent below our base model! This highlights a trade-off between the two primary metrics — NDCG and MRR — which we find is due to dense annotations not correlating well with the original ground-truth answers to questions.

Learning to generate grounded visual captions without localization supervision

Chih-Yao Ma, Yannis Kalantidis, Ghassan AlRegib, Peter Vajda, Marcus Rohrbach, Zsolt Kira

When automatically generating a sentence description for an image or video, it often remains unclear how well the generated caption is grounded, that is whether the model uses the correct image regions to output particular words, or if the model is hallucinating based on priors in the data set and/or the language model. The most common way of relating image regions with words in caption models is through an attention mechanism over the regions that are used as input to predict the next word. The model must therefore learn to predict the attentional weights without knowing the word it should localize. This is difficult to train without grounding supervision since recurrent models can propagate past information and there is no explicit signal to force the captioning model to properly ground the individual decoded words. In this work, we help the model to achieve this via a novel cyclical training regimen that forces the model to localize each word in the image after the sentence decoder generates it, and then reconstruct the sentence from the localized image region(s) to match the ground-truth. Our proposed framework only requires learning one extra fully connected layer (the localizer), a layer that can be removed at test time. We show that our model significantly improves grounding accuracy without relying on grounding supervision or introducing extra computation during inference, for both image and video captioning tasks. Code is available here.

Making an invisibility cloak: Real world adversarial attacks on object detectors

Zuxuan Wu, Ser-Nam Lim, Larry S. Davis, Tom Goldstein

We present a systematic study of the transferability of adversarial attacks on state-of-the-art object detection frameworks. Using standard detection data sets, we train patterns that suppress the objectness scores produced by a range of commonly used detectors, and ensembles of detectors. Through extensive experiments, we benchmark the effectiveness of adversarially trained patches under both white-box and black-box settings, and quantify transferability of attacks between data sets, object classes, and detector models. Finally, we present a detailed study of physical world attacks using printed posters and wearable clothes, and rigorously quantify the performance of such attacks with different metrics.

Mapillary planet-scale depth data set

Manuel Lopez-Antequera, Pau Gargallo, Markus Hofinger, Samuel Rota Bulò, Yubin Kuang, Peter Kontschieder

Learning-based methods produce remarkable results on single image depth tasks when trained on well-established benchmarks, however, there is a large gap from these benchmarks to real-world performance that is usually obscured by the common practice of fine-tuning on the target data set. We introduce a new depth data set that is an order of magnitude larger than previous data sets, but more important contains an unprecedented gamut of locations, camera models, and scene types while offering metric depth (not just up-to-scale). Additionally, we investigate the problem of training single image depth networks using images captured with many different cameras, validating an existing approach and proposing a simpler alternative. With our contributions we achieve excellent results on challenging benchmarks before fine-tuning, and set the state of the art on the popular KITTI data set after fine-tuning. The data set is available at mapillary.com/dataset/depth.

Mask TextSpotter v3: Segmentation proposal network for robust scene text spotting

Minghui Liao, Guan Pang, Jing Huang, Tal Hassner, Xiang Bai

Recent end-to-end trainable methods for scene text spotting, integrating detection and recognition, showed much progress. However, most of the current arbitrary-shape scene text spotters use region proposal networks (RPN) to produce proposals. RPN relies heavily on manually designed anchors and its proposals are represented with axis-aligned rectangles. The former presents difficulties in handling text instances of extreme aspect ratios or irregular shapes, and the latter often includes multiple neighboring instances into a single proposal, in cases of densely oriented text. To tackle these problems, we propose Mask TextSpotter v3, an end-to-end trainable scene text spotter that adopts a Segmentation Proposal Network (SPN) instead of an RPN. Our SPN is anchor-free and gives accurate representations of arbitrary-shape proposals. It is therefore superior to RPN in detecting text instances of extreme aspect ratios or irregular shapes. Furthermore, the accurate proposals produced by SPN allow masked RoI features to be used for decoupling neighboring text instances. As a result, our Mask TextSpotter v3 can handle text instances of extreme aspect ratios or irregular shapes, and its recognition accuracy won’t be affected by nearby text or background noise. Specifically, we outperform state-of-the-art methods by 21.9 percent on the Rotated ICDAR 2013 data set (rotation robustness), 5.9 percent on the Total-Text data set (shape robustness), and achieve state-of-the-art performance on the MSRA-TD500 data set (aspect ratio robustness).

Occupancy anticipation for efficient navigation

Santhosh K. Ramakrishnan, Ziad Al-Halah, Kristen Grauman

State-of-the-art navigation methods leverage a spatial memory to generalize to new environments, but their occupancy maps are limited to capturing the geometric structures directly observed by the agent. We propose occupancy anticipation, where the agent uses its egocentric RGB-D observations to infer the occupancy state beyond the visible regions. In doing so, the agent builds its spatial awareness more rapidly, which facilitates efficient exploration and navigation in 3D environments. By exploiting context in both the egocentric views and top-down maps our model successfully anticipates a broader map of the environment, with performance significantly better than strong baselines. Furthermore, when deployed for the sequential decision-making tasks of exploration and navigation, our model outperforms state-of-the-art methods on the Gibson and Matterport3D data sets. Our approach is the winning entry in the 2020 Habitat PointNav Challenge. Project page: http://vision.cs.utexas.edu/projects/occupancy_anticipation/.

PatchNets: Patch-based generalizable DeepImplicit 3D shape representations

Edgar Tretschk, Ayush Tewari, Vladislav Golyanik, Michal Zollhoffer,Carsten Stoll, Christian Theobalt

Implicit surface representations, such as signed-distance functions, combined with deep learning have led to impressive models which can represent detailed shapes of objects with arbitrary topology. Since a continuous function is learned, the reconstructions can also be extracted at any arbitrary resolution. However, large data sets such as ShapeNet are required to train such models. In this paper, we present a new mid-level patch-based surface representation. At the level of patches, objects across different categories share similarities, which leads to more generalizable models.

We then introduce a novel method to learn this patch-based representation in a canonical space, such that it is as object-agnostic as possible. We show that our representation trained on one category of objects from ShapeNet can also well represent detailed shapes from any other category. In addition, it can be trained using much fewer shapes, compared to existing approaches. We show several applications of our new representation, including shape interpolation and partial point cloud completion. Due to explicit control over positions, orientations and scales of patches, our representation is also more controllable compared to object-level representations, which enables us to deform encoded shapes non-rigidly.

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Perceiving 3D human-object spatial arrangements from a single image in the wild

Jason Y. Zhang, Sam Pepose, Hanbyul Joo, Deva Ramanan, Jitendra Malik, Angjoo Kanazawa

We present a method that infers spatial arrangements and shapes of humans and objects in a globally consistent 3D scene, all from a single image in the wild captured in an uncontrolled environment. Notably, our method runs on data sets without any scene- or object-level 3D supervision. Our key insight is that considering humans and objects jointly gives rise to “3D common sense” constraints that can be used to resolve ambiguity. In particular, we introduce a scale loss that learns the distribution of object size from data, an occlusion-aware silhouette re-projection loss to optimize object pose, and a human-object interaction loss to capture the spatial layout of objects with which humans interact. We empirically validate that our constraints dramatically reduce the space of likely 3D spatial configurations. We demonstrate our approach on challenging, in-the-wild images of humans interacting with large objects (such as bicycles, motorcycles, and surfboards) and handheld objects (such as laptops, tennis rackets, and skateboards). We quantify the ability of our approach to recover human-object arrangements and outline remaining challenges in this relatively unexplored domain. The project webpage can be found at https://jasonyzhang.com/phosa.

PointContrast: Unsupervised pre-training for 3D point cloud understanding

Saining Xie, Jiatao Gu, Demi Guo, Or Litany, Charles R. Qi, Leonidas Guibas

Arguably one of the top success stories of deep learning is transfer learning. The finding that pretraining a network on a rich source set (e.g., ImageNet) can help boost performance once fine-tuned on a usually much smaller target set, has been instrumental to many applications in language and vision. Yet, very little is known about its usefulness in 3D point cloud understanding. We see this as an opportunity considering the effort required for annotating data in 3D. In this work, we aim at facilitating research on 3D representation learning. Different from previous works, we focus on high-level scene understanding tasks. To this end, we select a suit of diverse data sets and tasks to measure the effect of unsupervised pretraining on a large source set of 3D scenes. Our findings are extremely encouraging: Using a unified triplet of architecture, source data set, and contrastive loss for pretraining, we achieve improvement over recent best results in segmentation and detection across six different benchmarks for indoor and outdoor, real and synthetic data sets — demonstrating that the learned representation can generalize across domains. Furthermore, the improvement was similar to supervised pretraining, suggesting that future efforts should favor scaling data collection over more detailed annotation. We hope these findings will encourage more research on unsupervised pretext task design for 3D deep learning.

Proposal-based video completion

Yuan-Ting Hu, Heng Wang, Nicolas Ballas, Kristen Grauman, Alexander Schwing

Video inpainting is an important technique for a wide variety of applications from video content editing to video restoration. Early approaches follow image inpainting paradigms, but are challenged by complex camera motion and non-rigid deformations. To address these challenges flow-guided propagation techniques have been proposed. However, computation of flow is non-trivial for unobserved regions and propagation across a whole video sequence is computationally demanding. In contrast, in this paper, we propose a video inpainting algorithm based on proposals: We use 3D convolutions to obtain an initial inpainting estimate which is subsequently refined by fusing a generated set of proposals. Different from existing approaches for video inpainting, and inspired by well-explored mechanisms for object detection, we argue that proposals provide a rich source of information that permits to combine similarly looking patches that may be spatially and temporally far from the region to be inpainted. We validate the effectiveness of our method on the challenging YouTube VOS and DAVIS data sets using different settings and demonstrate results outperforming state-of-the-art on standard metrics.

Quantization guided JPEG artifact correction

Max Ehrlich, Larry Davis, Ser-Nam Lim, Abhinav Shrivastava

The JPEG image compression algorithm is the most popular method of image compression because of its ability for large compression ratios. However, to achieve such high compression, information is lost. For aggressive quantization settings, this leads to a noticeable reduction in image quality. Artifact correction has been studied in the context of deep neural networks for some time, but the current methods delivering state-of-the-art results require a different model to be trained for each quality setting, greatly limiting their practical application. We solve this problem by creating a novel architecture which is parameterized by the JPEG file’s quantization matrix. This allows our single model to achieve state-of-the-art performance over models trained for specific quality settings.

Seeing the un-Scene: Learning amodal semantic maps for room navigation

Medhini Narasimhan, Erik Wijmans, Xinlei Chen, Trevor Darrell, Dhruv Batra, Devi Parikh, Amanpreet Singh

We introduce a learning-based approach for room navigation using semantic maps. Our proposed architecture learns to predict top-down belief maps of regions that lie beyond the agent’s field of view while modeling architectural and stylistic regularities in houses. First, we train a model to generate amodal semantic top-down maps indicating beliefs of location, size, and shape of rooms by learning the underlying architectural patterns in houses. Next, we use these maps to predict a point that lies in the target room and train a policy to navigate to the point. We empirically demonstrate that by predicting semantic maps, the model learns common correlations found in houses and generalizes to novel environments. We also demonstrate that reducing the task of room navigation to point navigation improves the performance further. We will make our code publicly available and hope our work paves the way for further research in this space.

SOLAR: Second-order loss and attention for image retrieval

Tony Ng, Vassileios Balntas, Yurun Tian, Krystian Mikolajczyk

Recent works in deep learning have shown that second-order information is beneficial in many computer-vision related tasks. Second-order information can be enforced both in the spatial context and the abstract feature dimensions. In this work, we explore two second-order components. One is focused on second-order spatial information to increase the performance of image descriptors, both local and global. More specifically, it is used to re-weight feature maps, and thus emphasise salient image locations that are subsequently used for description. The second component is concerned with a second-order similarity (SOS) loss, that we extend to global descriptors for image retrieval, and is used to enhance the triplet loss with hard-negative mining. We validate our approach on two different tasks and data sets for image retrieval and image matching. The results show that our two second-order components compliment each other, bringing significant performance improvements in both tasks and lead to state-of-the-art results across the benchmarks. Code available at: http://github.com/tonyngjichun/SOLAR.

SoundSpaces: Audio-visual embodied navigation

Changan Chen, Unnat Jain, Carl Schissler, Sebastia Vicenc Amengual Gari, Ziad Al-Halah, Vamsi Krishna Ithapu, Philip Robinson, Kristen Grauman

Moving around in the world is naturally a multisensory experience, but today’s embodied agents are deaf — restricted to solely their visual perception of the environment. We introduce audio-visual navigation for complex, acoustically and visually realistic 3D environments. By both seeing and hearing, the agent must learn to navigate to a sounding object. We propose a multi-modal deep reinforcement learning approach to train navigation policies end-to-end from a stream of egocentric audio-visual observations, allowing the agent to (1) discover elements of the geometry of the physical space indicated by the reverberating audio, and (2) detect and follow sound-emitting targets. We further introduce SoundSpaces, a first-of-its-kind data set of audio renderings based on geometrical acoustic simulations for two sets of publicly available 3D environments (Matterport3D and Replica), and we instrument Habitat to support the new sensor, making it possible to insert arbitrary sound sources in an array of real-world scanned environments. Our results show that audio greatly benefits embodied visual navigation in 3D spaces, and our work lays groundwork for new research in embodied AI with audio-visual perception. Project: http://vision.cs.utexas.edu/projects/audio_visual_navigation.

Spatially aware multimodal transformers for TextVQA

Yash Kant, Dhruv Batra, Peter Anderson, Alexander Schwing, Devi Parikh, Jiasen Lu, and Harsh Agrawal

Textual cues are essential for everyday tasks like buying groceries and using public transport. To develop this assistive technology, we study the TextVQA task, i.e., reasoning about text in images to answer a question. Existing approaches are limited in their use of spatial relations and rely on fully connected transformer-based architectures to implicitly learn the spatial structure of a scene. In contrast, we propose a novel spatially aware self-attention layer such that each visual entity only looks at neighboring entities defined by a spatial graph. Further, each head in our multi-head self-attention layer focuses on a different subset of relations. Our approach has two advantages: (1) each head considers local context instead of dispersing the attention amongst all visual entities; (2) we avoid learning redundant features. We show that our model improves the absolute accuracy of current state-of-the-art methods on TextVQA by 2.2 percent overall over an improved baseline, and 4.62 percent on questions that involve spatial reasoning and can be answered correctly using OCR tokens. Similarly on ST-VQA, we improve the absolute accuracy by 4.2 percent. We further show that spatially aware self-attention improves visual grounding.

SqueezeSegV3: Spatially adaptive convolution for efficient point-cloud segmentation

Chenfeng Xu, Bichen Wu, Zining Wang, Wei Zhan, Peter Vajda, Kurt Keutzer, Masayoshi Tomizuka

LiDAR point-cloud segmentation is an important problem for many applications. For large-scale point cloud segmentation, the de facto method is to project a 3D point cloud to get a 2D LiDAR image and use convolutions to process it. Despite the similarity between regular RGB and LiDAR images, we are the first to discover that the feature distribution of LiDAR images changes drastically at different image locations. Using standard convolutions to process such LiDAR images is problematic, as convolution filters pick up local features that are only active in specific regions in the image. As a result, the capacity of the network is under-utilized and the segmentation performance decreases. To fix this, we propose Spatially-Adaptive Convolution (SAC) to adopt different filters for different locations according to the input image. SAC can be computed efficiently since it can be implemented as a series of element-wise multiplications, im2col, and standard convolution. It is a general framework such that several previous methods can be seen as special cases of SAC. Using SAC, we build SqueezeSegV3 for LiDAR point-cloud segmentation and outperform all previous published methods by at least 2.0 percent mIoU on the SemanticKITTI benchmark. Code and pretrained model are available at https://github.com/chenfengxu714/SqueezeSegV3.

TexMesh: Reconstructing detailed human texture and geometry from RGB-D video

Tiancheng Zhi, Christoph Lassner, Tony Tung, Carsten Stoll, Srinivasa G. Narasimhan, Minh Vo

We present TexMesh, a novel approach to reconstruct detailed human meshes with high-resolution full-body texture from RGB-D video. TexMesh enables high-quality free-viewpoint rendering of humans. Given the RGB frames, the captured environment map, and the coarse per-frame human mesh from RGB-D tracking, our method reconstructs spatiotemporally consistent and detailed per-frame meshes along with a high-resolution albedo texture. By using the incident illumination we are able to accurately estimate local surface geometry and albedo, which allows us to further use photometric constraints to adapt a synthetically trained model to real-world sequences in a self-supervised manner for detailed surface geometry and high-resolution texture estimation. In practice, we train our models on a short example sequence for self-adaptation and the model runs at interactive framerate afterwards. We validate TexMesh on synthetic and real-world data, and show it outperforms the state of art quantitatively and qualitatively.

TextCaps: a data set for Image Captioning with Reading Comprehension

Oleksii Sidorov, Ronghang Hu, Marcus Rohrbach, Amanpreet Singh

Image descriptions can help visually impaired people to quickly understand the image content. While we made significant progress in automatically describing images and optical character recognition, current approaches are unable to include written text in their descriptions, although text is omnipresent in human environments and frequently critical to understand our surroundings. To study how to comprehend text in the context of an image we collect a novel data set, TextCaps, with 145K captions for 28K images. Our data set challenges a model to recognize text, relate it to its visual context, and decide what part of the text to copy or paraphrase, requiring spatial, semantic, and visual reasoning between multiple text tokens and visual entities, such as objects. We study baselines and adapt existing approaches to this new task, which we refer to as image captioning with reading comprehension. Our analysis with automatic and human studies shows that our new TextCaps data set provides many new technical challenges over previous data sets.

The mapillary traffic sign data set for detection and classification on a global scale

Christian Ertler, Jerneja Mislej, Tobias Ollmann, Lorenzo Porzi, Gerhard Neuhold, Yubin Kuang

Traffic signs are essential map features for smart cities and navigation. To develop accurate and robust algorithms for traffic sign detection and classification, a large-scale and diverse benchmark data set is required. In this paper, we introduce a new traffic sign data set of 105K street-level images around the world covering 400 manually annotated traffic sign classes in diverse scenes, wide range of geographical locations, and varying weather and lighting conditions. The data set includes 52K fully annotated images. Additionally, we show how to augment the data set with 53K semisupervised, partially annotated images. This is the largest and the most diverse traffic sign data set consisting of images from all over the world with fine-grained annotations of traffic sign classes. We run extensive experiments to establish strong baselines for both detection and classification tasks. In addition, we verify that the diversity of this data set enables effective transfer learning for existing large-scale benchmark data sets on traffic sign detection and classification. The data set is freely available for academic research.

Towards generalization across depth for monocular 3D object detection

Andrea Simonelli, Samuel Rota Bulò, Lorenzo Porzi, Elisa Ricci, Peter Kontschieder

While expensive LiDAR and stereo camera rigs have enabled the development of successful 3D object detection methods, monocular RGB-only approaches lag much behind. This work advances the state of the art by introducing MoVi-3D, a novel, single-stage deep architecture for monocular 3D object detection. MoVi-3D builds upon a novel approach which leverages geometrical information to generate, both at training and test time, virtual views where the object appearance is normalized with respect to distance. These virtually generated views facilitate the detection task as they significantly reduce the visual appearance variability associated to objects placed at different distances from the camera. As a consequence, the deep model is relieved from learning depth-specific representations and its complexity can be significantly reduced. In particular, in this work we show that, thanks to our virtual views generation process, a lightweight, single-stage architecture suffices to set new state-of-the-art results on the popular KITTI3D benchmark.

VisualEchoes: Spatial image representation learning through echolocation

Ruohan Gao, Changan Chen, Ziad Al-Halah, Carl Schissler, Kristen Grauman

Several animal species (e.g., bats, dolphins, and whales) and even visually impaired humans have the remarkable ability to perform echolocation: a biological sonar used to perceive spatial layout and locate objects in the world. We explore the spatial cues contained in echoes and how they can benefit vision tasks that require spatial reasoning. First we capture echo responses in photo-realistic 3D indoor scene environments. Then we propose a novel interaction-based representation learning framework that learns useful visual features via echolocation. We show that the learned image features are useful for multiple downstream vision tasks requiring spatial reasoning — monocular depth estimation, surface normal estimation, and visual navigation — with results comparable or even better than heavily supervised pretraining. Our work opens a new path for representation learning for embodied agents, where supervision comes from interacting with the physical world.

Other activities at ECCV 2020

Tutorials

Visual recognition for images, video, and 3D
Alexander Kirillov, Christoph Feichtenhofer, Georgia Gkioxari, Haoqi Fan, Nikhila Ravi, Piotr Dollár, Ross Girshick, Saining Xie, Wan-Yen Lo, Yuxin Wu, organizers

Workshops

Sunday, August 23

OpenEyes: Eye gaze in VR, AR, and in the wild
Sachin S. Talathi, Abhishek Sharma, Yiru Shen, Elias Guerstein, Alexander Fix, Tarek Hefny, Robert Cavin, Kapil Krishnakumar, Jixu Chen, organizers

Holistic scene structures for 3D vision
Chen Liu, organizer

Multimodal video analysis workshop and moments in time challenge
Zhicheng Yan, organizer

Friday, August 28

Learning 3D representations of shape and appearance
Tanner Schmidt and Shubham Tulsiani, organizers

Long-term visual localization under changing conditions
Vassileios Balnatas and Huub Heijnen, organizers

Perception through structured generative models
Shubham Tulsiani, organizer

Self supervised learning — what is next?
Armand Joulin, organizer