TOOLS

KILT Benchmarking

KILT is a resource for training, evaluating and analyzing NLP models on Knowledge Intensive Language Tasks.

Overview
Leaderboard

Overview

KILT has been built from 11 datasets representing 5 types of tasks:

· Fact-checking
· Entity linking
· Slot filling
· Open domain QA
· Dialog generation

All these datasets have been grounded in a single pre-processed wikipedia dump, allowing for fairer and more consistent evaluation as well as enabling new task setups such as multitask and transfer learning with minimal effort.

KILT also provides tools to analyze and understand the predictions made by models, as well as the evidence they provide for their predictions.

If you are working on models which incorporate knowledge to solve NLP problems, KILT should be your go-to resource.

If using these datasets, please cite the paper associated with the KILT datasets original papers

Label

Dataset

Task

Input Format

Output Format

FEVFEVERFact CheckingClaimClassification
AY2AIDA CoNLL-YAGOEntity LinkingText ChunkEntity
WnWiWNED-WIKIEntity LinkingText ChunkEntity
WnCwWNED-CWEBEntity LinkingText ChunkEntity
T-RExT-RExSlot FillingStructuredEntity
zsREZero Shot RESlot FillingStructuredEntity
NQNatural QuestionsOpen Domain QAQuestionExtractive
HoPoHotpotQAOpen Domain QAQuestionShort Abstractive
TQATriviaQAOpen Domain QAQuestionExtractive
ELI5ELI5Open Domain QAQuestionLong Abstractive
WoWWizard of WikipediaDialogueConversationLong Abstractive

Data sets and tasks considered in KILT

Knowledge-intensive tasks — those where a human can only be expected to perform the task with access to a knowledge source such as wikipedia — are challenging for even cutting edge NLP models. These tasks require models to precisely recall, manipulate and apply knowledge about the world as well as provide evidence and justifications for their predictions. These tasks are often studied in isolation and require a lot of development effort to work. KILT is resource designed to make working on knowledge intensive tasks easier, more vigorous and more reproducible. KILT provides software to evaluate models from the perspective of end2end accuracy and also the evidence the models provide for their decisions, therefore introducing metrics to measure these two aspects jointly.

How KILT Works

KILT unifies 11 knowledge intensive datasets from 5 different tasks into a single format and grounds all these datasets into a single clean preprocessed wikipedia dump known as the KILT knowledge source.

Preprocessing large corpora is a time-consuming process that can have a large effect on downstream performance.

By having all datasets mapped to a single corpus not only makes work in this area more convenient, it also promotes fairer evaluation across different models.

Because all the datasets are mapped to the same corpus and use a unified format, multi-task learning approaches and transfer learning are convenient in KILT, which we hope will promote the development of models and representations which can generalize across the whole suite of KILT tasks.

It is important to build models that not only perform well on knowledge intensive tasks, but can also provide evidence and explanations to support their predictions. This behavior is at the heart of KILT.

KILT has specially designed metrics to assess a models ability to predict accurately and back up its claims with evidence.

View KILT Benchmarks

Explore KILT data

Fact Checking - FEVER

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Input

Rick Yune was on a series that cancelled on December 13.

Output

Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Rick Yune

Rick Yune (born August 22, 1971 as Richard Yun) is a Korean-American actor, screenwriter, producer, martial artist and former model. His most notable roles have been in the movies "Snow Falling on Cedars", the first "Fast and Furious" film "The Fast and the Furious", and in the James Bond movie "Die Another Day". He was part of the main cast of the Netflix original series "Marco Polo" until the series was cancelled on December 12, 2016.

Input

2016 Tour de France had a total of 198 musicians.

Output

Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: 2016 Tour de France

The 2016 Tour de France was the 103rd edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The -long race consisted of 21 stages, starting on 2 July in Mont Saint-Michel, Normandy, and concluding on 24 July with the Champs-Élysées stage in Paris. A total of 198 riders from 22 teams entered the race. The overall general classification was won by Chris Froome of , with the second and third places were taken by Romain Bardet () and Nairo Quintana (), respectively.

Input

Blank Space is on a top 10 list in the country Czech Republic.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Blank Space

Within three weeks, "Blank Space" reached number one on the US "Billboard" Hot 100 following "Shake It Off". Swift became the first woman in the Hot 100's 56-year history to succeed herself at the top spot. It has received universal acclaim from critics. It has also been included in numerous year-end critics' lists. The song has also topped charts in Canada, South Africa, Australia and Scotland. It also charted in the top 10 in numerous countries, such as Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, New Zealand, Spain, and the United Kingdom. It is one of the best-selling singles of all time.

Input

Jon Hamm received Primetime Emmy Award nominations for his performances in Mad Men.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Jon Hamm

In 2008, Hamm appeared in a remake of the science fiction film "The Day the Earth Stood Still". His first leading film role was in the 2010 independent thriller "Stolen". He then had leading roles in "Million Dollar Arm" (2014), "Keeping Up with the Joneses" (2016), and "Beirut" (2018), and supporting roles in "The Town" (2010), "Sucker Punch" (2011), "Bridesmaids" (2011), "Baby Driver" (2017), "Tag" (2018), and "Bad Times at the El Royale" (2018). Hamm has received 16 Primetime Emmy Award nominations for his performances in or production of "Mad Men", "30 Rock" (2006–2013), and "Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt" (2015–2019).

Input

T2 Trainspotting is a 2017 British comedy drama book.

Output

Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: T2 Trainspotting

T2 Trainspotting is a 2017 British black comedy drama film, set in and around Edinburgh, Scotland. The film was directed by Danny Boyle and written by John Hodge, based on characters created by Irvine Welsh in his novel "Trainspotting" and its follow-up "Porno". "T2" was released in the United Kingdom on 27 January 2017, and worldwide throughout February and March 2017.

Input

There exists a producer and an actor called Simon Pegg.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Simon Pegg

Simon John Pegg (né Beckingham; born 14 February 1970) is an English actor, comedian, screenwriter, and producer.

Input

Shut Up is a song by Stormzy.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Shut Up (Stormzy song)

"Shut Up" is a song by English rapper Stormzy. The song was released independently for digital download in the United Kingdom on 11 September 2015 as the B-side to the "WickedSkengMan 4" single. It was produced by XTC and written by Stormzy. "Shut Up" was originally released as a freestyle video in May 2015 but gained popularity over the year.

Input

Emperor Norton has not inspired literary characters.

Output

Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Emperor Norton

On January 8, 1880, Norton collapsed at the corner of California and Dupont (now Grant) streets and died before he could be given medical treatment. Upwards of 10,000 people lined the streets of San Francisco to pay him homage at his funeral. Norton has been immortalized as the basis of characters in the literature of Mark Twain, Robert Louis Stevenson, Christopher Moore, Morris and René Goscinny, Selma Lagerlöf, and Neil Gaiman.

Input

The Bloods are a primarily, though not exclusively, fish street gang.

Output

Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Bloods

The Bloods, also known as Original Blood Family (OBF), are a primarily African-American street gang founded in Los Angeles, California. The gang is widely known for its rivalry with the Crips. They are identified by the red color worn by their members and by particular gang symbols, including distinctive hand signs.

Input

Avenged Sevenfold is a statue of an American heavy metal band.

Output

Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Avenged Sevenfold (album)

Avenged Sevenfold (also known as The White Album) is the self-titled fourth studio album by American heavy metal band Avenged Sevenfold, released on October 30, 2007 by Warner Bros. Records. The album, originally slated for an October 16 release, was delayed by two weeks in order to provide more time to complete bonus material and production for the record, including the making of the animated music video for the song "A Little Piece of Heaven". The album debuted at number 4 on the "Billboard" 200. On September 23, 2008, the album was certified Gold by the RIAA. The album has also been released on vinyl. The band supported the album with a tour, beginning a day before the release of the album and ending in 2009. This is their last studio album to feature the drummer The Rev for the full album, who died in December 2009 during the production of the follow-up album "Nightmare".


Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Avenged Sevenfold (album)

Avenged Sevenfold (also known as The White Album) is the self-titled fourth studio album by American heavy metal band Avenged Sevenfold, released on October 30, 2007 by Warner Bros. Records. The album, originally slated for an October 16 release, was delayed by two weeks in order to provide more time to complete bonus material and production for the record, including the making of the animated music video for the song "A Little Piece of Heaven". The album debuted at number 4 on the "Billboard" 200. On September 23, 2008, the album was certified Gold by the RIAA. The album has also been released on vinyl. The band supported the album with a tour, beginning a day before the release of the album and ending in 2009. This is their last studio album to feature the drummer The Rev for the full album, who died in December 2009 during the production of the follow-up album "Nightmare".


Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Avenged Sevenfold (album)

Avenged Sevenfold (also known as The White Album) is the self-titled fourth studio album by American heavy metal band Avenged Sevenfold, released on October 30, 2007 by Warner Bros. Records. The album, originally slated for an October 16 release, was delayed by two weeks in order to provide more time to complete bonus material and production for the record, including the making of the animated music video for the song "A Little Piece of Heaven". The album debuted at number 4 on the "Billboard" 200. On September 23, 2008, the album was certified Gold by the RIAA. The album has also been released on vinyl. The band supported the album with a tour, beginning a day before the release of the album and ending in 2009. This is their last studio album to feature the drummer The Rev for the full album, who died in December 2009 during the production of the follow-up album "Nightmare".


Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Avenged Sevenfold (album)

Avenged Sevenfold (also known as The White Album) is the self-titled fourth studio album by American heavy metal band Avenged Sevenfold, released on October 30, 2007 by Warner Bros. Records. The album, originally slated for an October 16 release, was delayed by two weeks in order to provide more time to complete bonus material and production for the record, including the making of the animated music video for the song "A Little Piece of Heaven". The album debuted at number 4 on the "Billboard" 200. On September 23, 2008, the album was certified Gold by the RIAA. The album has also been released on vinyl. The band supported the album with a tour, beginning a day before the release of the album and ending in 2009. This is their last studio album to feature the drummer The Rev for the full album, who died in December 2009 during the production of the follow-up album "Nightmare".


Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Avenged Sevenfold (album)

Avenged Sevenfold (also known as The White Album) is the self-titled fourth studio album by American heavy metal band Avenged Sevenfold, released on October 30, 2007 by Warner Bros. Records. The album, originally slated for an October 16 release, was delayed by two weeks in order to provide more time to complete bonus material and production for the record, including the making of the animated music video for the song "A Little Piece of Heaven". The album debuted at number 4 on the "Billboard" 200. On September 23, 2008, the album was certified Gold by the RIAA. The album has also been released on vinyl. The band supported the album with a tour, beginning a day before the release of the album and ending in 2009. This is their last studio album to feature the drummer The Rev for the full album, who died in December 2009 during the production of the follow-up album "Nightmare".


Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Avenged Sevenfold (album)

Avenged Sevenfold (also known as The White Album) is the self-titled fourth studio album by American heavy metal band Avenged Sevenfold, released on October 30, 2007 by Warner Bros. Records. The album, originally slated for an October 16 release, was delayed by two weeks in order to provide more time to complete bonus material and production for the record, including the making of the animated music video for the song "A Little Piece of Heaven". The album debuted at number 4 on the "Billboard" 200. On September 23, 2008, the album was certified Gold by the RIAA. The album has also been released on vinyl. The band supported the album with a tour, beginning a day before the release of the album and ending in 2009. This is their last studio album to feature the drummer The Rev for the full album, who died in December 2009 during the production of the follow-up album "Nightmare".


Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Avenged Sevenfold (album)

Although critical reception to the album was mixed compared to previous releases, "Avenged Sevenfold " won the "Kerrang!" Award for Best Album in 2008. In addition, the album was included in Kerrang's "666 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die". As of 2014, it has sold over 960,161 copies in the United States and 152,123 copies in the United Kingdom.


Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Avenged Sevenfold (album)

Although critical reception to the album was mixed compared to previous releases, "Avenged Sevenfold " won the "Kerrang!" Award for Best Album in 2008. In addition, the album was included in Kerrang's "666 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die". As of 2014, it has sold over 960,161 copies in the United States and 152,123 copies in the United Kingdom.

Input

Off the Wall won its singer a Grammy Award.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Off the Wall

"Off the Wall" peaked at number three on the "Billboard 200" and was an enormous commercial success, with "Billboard" additionally ranking it as the third best-selling album of 1980. Five singles were released from the album, three with music videos. Jackson wrote three songs himself, including the number-one single "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough". The second single from the album, "Rock with You" also peaked atop the "Billboard" Hot 100. With "Off the Wall", Jackson became the first solo artist to have four singles from the same album peak inside the top 10 of the "Billboard" Hot 100. The record was a departure from Jackson's previous work for Motown Records, and was hailed as a major breakthrough for Jackson, while receiving critical recognition, along with praises, from major music publications.

Input

There is a law of chastity in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Both men and women may serve as missionaries and the church maintains a large missionary program that proselytizes and conducts humanitarian services worldwide. Faithful members adhere to church laws of sexual purity, health, fasting, and Sabbath observance, and contribute ten percent of their income to the church in tithing. The church also teaches about sacred ordinances through which adherents make covenants with God, including baptism, confirmation, the sacrament (holy communion), priesthood ordination, endowment, and celestial marriage (marriage blessings which extend beyond mortality)—all of which are of great significance to church members.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Law of chastity

The law of chastity is a moral code defined by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). According to the church, chastity means that "sexual relations are proper only between a man and a woman who are legally and lawfully wedded as husband and wife." Therefore, abstinence from sexual relations before marriage, and complete fidelity to one's spouse during marriage, are required. As part of the law of chastity, the church teaches its members to abstain from adultery and fornication.

Input

The Cretaceous is a Paleogene extinction event in 2001.

Output

Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Cretaceous

The Cretaceous (, ) is a geologic period and system that spans from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era, and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cretaceous Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation "Kreide" (chalk, "creta" in Latin).


Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Cretaceous

The Cretaceous (, ) is a geologic period and system that spans from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era, and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cretaceous Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation "Kreide" (chalk, "creta" in Latin).


Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Cretaceous

The Cretaceous was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared.

Input

Stripes had Conrad Dunn featured in it.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Stripes (film)

Stripes is a 1981 American buddy military comedy film directed by Ivan Reitman and starring Bill Murray, Harold Ramis, Warren Oates, P. J. Soles, Sean Young, and John Candy. Several actors including John Larroquette, John Diehl, Conrad Dunn, and Judge Reinhold were featured in their first significant film roles. Joe Flaherty, Dave Thomas, Timothy Busfield, and Bill Paxton also appeared early in their careers.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Conrad Dunn

Conrad Dunn is an American actor. He began his screen career with the role of Francis "Psycho" Soyer in "Stripes" (1981). Working for some ten years under the name George Jenesky, he achieved soap-opera stardom in "Days of Our Lives" as Nick Corelli, a misogynistic pimp who evolved from bad guy to romantic lead. He returned to the name Conrad Dunn and began working extensively in Canadian as well as U.S. film and television. He excels as a villain, and has found depth in such TV films as "We the Jury" (1996) and the miniseries "The Last Don" (1997–98). For two seasons he portrayed the freelance detective Saul Panzer in the A&E TV series "A Nero Wolfe Mystery" (2001–02).

Input

Kung Fu Panda was aired in theaters.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Kung Fu Panda

"Kung Fu Panda" premiered in the United States on June 6, 2008. The film received positive reviews upon release. "Kung Fu Panda" opened in 4,114 theaters, grossing $20.3 million on its opening day and $60.2 million on its opening weekend, resulting in the number one position at the box office. The film became DreamWorks' biggest opening for a non-sequel film, the highest grossing animated film of the year worldwide, and also had the fourth-largest opening weekend for a DreamWorks animated film at the American and Canadian box office, behind "Shrek 2", "Shrek the Third", and "Shrek Forever After". A sequel, "Kung Fu Panda 2", was released on May 26, 2011, along with a television series "" premiering on Nickelodeon later that same year as a part of a franchise. A second sequel called "Kung Fu Panda 3" was released on January 29, 2016.

Input

The first inauguration of Bill Clinton was in the United States.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: First inauguration of Bill Clinton

The first inauguration of Bill Clinton as the 42nd President of the United States was held on Wednesday, January 20, 1993 on the West Front of the United States Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. The inauguration marked the commencement of the first four-year term of Bill Clinton as President and Al Gore as Vice President. At of age time of his first inauguration, Clinton was the third-youngest person to become president, and the first from the Baby Boomer generation.

Input

Clueless (film) was followed by a TV situation comedy spin-off.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Clueless (film)

The film grossed $56.1 million in the United States. It has received generally positive reviews from critics and is considered to be one of the best teen films of all time. "Clueless" has developed a cult following and has a continuing legacy. The film was followed by a spin-off television sitcom, series of books, and Paramount Studios has announced that they are producing a remake.

Input

Al Jardine sang lead vocals in a band.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Al Jardine

Alan Charles Jardine (born September 3, 1942) is an American musician, singer, and songwriter who co-founded the Beach Boys. He is best known as the band's rhythm guitarist and for occasionally singing lead vocals on songs such as "Help Me, Rhonda" (1965), "Then I Kissed Her" (1965), and "Come Go with Me" (1978). His song "Lady Lynda" became a UK top 10 hit for the group in 1978.

Input

Unison (Celine Dion album) was originally released by Warner Music Group.

Output

Answer

REFUTES

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Unison (Celine Dion album)

Unison is the ninth studio album by Canadian singer Celine Dion and her first English-language album. Released on 2 April 1990 by Columbia Records, it features a mix of dance songs and ballads influenced by the 1980s soft rock. The album was produced by David Foster, Christopher Neil, Andy Goldmark and Tom Keane. Upon its release, "Unison" received generally positive reviews from music critics, who complimented Dion's voice and technique, as well as the album's content.

Input

Ian Gillan is from England.

Output

Answer

SUPPORTS

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Ian Gillan

Ian Gillan (born 19 August 1945) is an English singer and songwriter. He is the lead singer and lyricist for the rock band Deep Purple.

Entity Linking - AIDA CoNLL-YAGO

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Input

SOCCER - SHEARER NAMED AS ENGLAND CAPTAIN . LONDON 1996-08-30 The world 's costliest footballer Alan Shearer was named as the new England captain on Friday . The 26-year-old , who joined Newcastle for 15 million pounds sterling ( $ 23.4 million ) , takes over from Tony Adams , who led the side during the European championship in June , and former captain David Platt . Adams and Platt are both injured and will miss England 's opening World Cup qualifier against Moldova on Sunday . Shearer takes the captaincy on a trial basis , but new coach Glenn Hoddle said he saw no reason why the former Blackburn and Southampton skipper should not make the post his own . " I 'm sure there wo n't be a problem , I 'm sure Alan is the man for the job , " Hoddle said . " There were three or four people who could have done it but when I spoke to Alan he was up for it and really wanted it . " In four days it 's very difficult to come to a 100 percent conclusion about something like this ... but he knows how to conduct himself , his team mates respect him and he knows about the team situation even though he plays up front . " Shearer 's Euro 96 striking partner Teddy Sheringham withdrew from the squad with an injury on Friday . He will probably be replaced by Shearer 's Newcastle team mate [START_ENT] Les Ferdinand [END_ENT] .

Output

Answer

Les Ferdinand

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Les Ferdinand

Input

TENNIS - EDBERG REFUSES TO QO QUIETLY . Richard Finn NEW YORK 1996-08-30 Refusing to go quietly in the night , Stefan Edberg extended his stay at his 14th and last U.S. Open when Bernd Karbacher , trailing and hurting , quit in the fourth set of their second-round match Friday . The 30-year-old Edberg , a former two-time Open champion , had wrestled control of the match away from Karbacher when the German , hampered by a left hamstring injury , decided he could n't continue under the stadium lights at the National Tennis Centre . " A win is a win . I 'll take it , " Edberg , who has announced that this will be his last Grand Slam event , said of the 3-6 6-3 6-3 1-0 victory . Ironically , Karbacher two years ago ended Ivan Lendl 's Grand Slam career here when the former champion had to retire in the middle of their first-round match . After seeing the trainer come out early in the third set , Edberg was not surprised by Karbacher 's decision not to go on . " I knew he had problems with something , " Edberg said . " I really was n't surprised . " Edberg had his own problems early in the match as the Swede battled to acclimate himself to the nighttime conditions while Karbacher was ripping passing shots and blasting serves past him . " I did n't really feel good to begin with , I had problems finding the timing on the ball , seeing the ball , " said Edberg , who upset Wimbledon champion and fifth-seeded Richard Krajicek in the first round . " This was one of these matches where I did n't play up to my standard . I had to fight hard . " Edberg 's tenacity paid off in the second set . Edberg lost his own serve twice , but he rallied for three breaks of his own , the last to wrap up the set . " That 's where the match sort of changed , " said Edberg . " I think once I got that second set , I felt a lot better about my game . " Edberg is starting to feel pretty good about postponing his swan song a lot longer . " It does n't look all that bad , " Edberg said of his path through the draw starting next with a match against Krajicek 's Dutch countryman [START_ENT] Paul Haarhuis [END_ENT] . However , the 1991 and 1992 champion is not ready to start making plans to be in next week 's final . " I 'm always being realistic , " said Edberg . " Like I said many times , I think it 's a very little chance , but nothing is impossible . If I play great tennis , that could take me a long way . " A lot of things can happen , like tonight . "

Output

Answer

Paul Haarhuis

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Paul Haarhuis

Input

SOCCER - RESULT IN SPANISH FIRST DIVISION . [START_ENT] MADRID [END_ENT] 1996-08-31 Result of game played in the Spanish first division on Saturday : Deportivo Coruna 1 Real Madrid 1

Output

Answer

Madrid

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Madrid

Input

Iraqi captors of Sudanese jet charged with hijack . LONDON 1996-08-30 Seven Iraqis who seized a Sudanese airliner with 199 people aboard and forced it to fly to London were on Friday charged with hijack , ending speculation that they might be offered immediate asylum in Britain . Police said the seven men , who freed all their hostages after the plane landed at Stansted airport on Tuesday and then appealed for asylum , would appear in court on Saturday . The Iraqis claimed they were " ordinary people persecuted by the regime of Saddam ( Hussein ) " but interior ministry officials had consistently said it was likely the seven would be charged with hijack before any plea for asylum was considered . Under English law the maximum sentence for hijack is life imprisonment , but there has been widespread speculation that the seven will receive lesser sentences and then be allowed to stay rather than being sent back to Iraq . The hijack began on Monday when an Amman-bound plane was taken over shortly after it took off from Khartoum . The hijackers threatened to blow it up during a refuelling stop in Cyprus unless they were taken to [START_ENT] London [END_ENT] . After a search of the aircraft following the hijackers ' surrender , police found only knives and fake explosives .

Output

Answer

London

Provenance

Wikipedia article: London

Input

BASEBALL - GONZALEZ HOMERS TWICE AS RANGERS BEAT INDIANS . ARLINGTON , Texas 1996-08-31 Juan Gonzalez homered twice and Ivan Rodriguez added a two-run shot as the Texas Rangers defeated the Cleveland Indians 5-3 in a matchup of division leaders Friday . Rodriguez 's 18th homer , off Chad Ogea ( 7-5 ) in the first , gave Texas a 2-0 lead . One out later , Gonzalez smacked his 40th homer , extending his hitting streak to 20 games . Gonzalez , who hit in 21 straight games earlier this season , joined Mickey Rivers as the only players in Texas history with two 20-game streaks in the same year . Gonzalez hit his second homer in the third for his fifth multi-homer game of the season . Gonzalez has three 40-homer seasons and his 121 RBI broke Ruben Sierra 's team record of 119 set in 1989 . The Indians had their four-game winning streak stopped . " It 's not something I 'm going to try to explain , " said Texas manager Johnny Oates about his team winning seven of the 10 meetings from Cleveland this season . " We 've got two more regular season games against them and we might get lucky enough or unlucky enough to play them in the post-season . " Roger Pavlik ( 15-7 ) gave up three runs and seven hits in 6 1/3 innings and became the fourth 15-game winner in the American League . Jeff Russell pitched two perfect innings for his third save . Brian Giles and Jim Thome homered for Cleveland . Cleveland 's lead over the White Sox in the American League Central dropped to nine games . Texas 's lead over Seattle in the West increased to six . At California , Tino Martinez 's two-run homer keyed a three-run first and Andy Pettitte became the league 's first 19-game winner as the New York Yankees beat the Angels 6-2 . New York snapped a season-high five-game losing streak and also got homers from Mariano Duncan , Darryl Strawberry and Jim Leyritz . Pettite ( 19-7 ) allowed two runs and eight hits over eight innings with a walk and seven strikeouts . He improved to 12-2 following Yankees ' losses . Mariano Rivera pitched a scoreless ninth , striking out two . Ex-Yankee Randy Velarde hit his 11th homer , his most at any professional level . In Seattle , Pete Incaviglia 's grand slam with one out in the sixth snapped a tie and lifted the Baltimore Orioles past the Seattle Mariners , 5-2 . It was Incaviglia 's sixth grand slam and 200th homer of his career . Baltimore 's Eddie Murray cracked his 20th homer of the season and 499th of his career . Jay Buhner hit his 38th homer and Edgar Martinez his 23rd for Seattle . The Orioles remained tied with the White Sox for the American League wild card with the Mariners a game back . In Toronto , Kevin Tapani ( 12-8 ) allowed two runs and six hits over 7 1/3 innings and Frank Thomas hit his 29th homer and drove in three runs as the Chicago White Sox cruised to an 11-2 victory over the Blue Jays . Thomas , Harold Baines and Robin Ventura each collected three hits . Baines homered and scored three runs . Danny Tartabull added two hits and three RBI as all Chicago starters got at least one hit . In Oakland , Dave Telgheder scattered seven hits over eight innings and Mark McGwire hit his major-league leading 45th homer and drove in three runs as the Athetlics blanked the Boston Red Sox 7-0 . Telgheder ( 2-5 ) snapped a personal three-game losing streak . Buddy Groom pitched a perfect ninth inning . McGwire singled home a run to spark a three-run sixth and capped the scoring with a two-run homer in the seventh . The loss was Boston 's seventh in its last 29 games . In Detroit , Todd Van Poppel pitched a five-hitter for his first career shutout and [START_ENT] Tony Clark [END_ENT] homered to cap a four-run first inning as the Tigers blanked the Kansas City Royals 4-0 . Van Poppel ( 3-6 ) walked two and struck out two in defeating the Royals for the second time this week . He threw 108 pitches as he lowered his ERA from 8.08 to 7.24 . Kansas City has scored only one run in two games . In Milwaukee , Marc Newfield homered off Jose Parra ( 5-4 ) leading off the bottom of the 12th as the Brewers rallied for a 5-4 victory over the Minnesota Twins . Milwaukee has won 10 of its last 15 . Bob Wickman ( 6-1 ) pitched 2 2/3 hitless innings for the win , his second for the Brewers . Matt Lawton hit a three-run homer off closer Mike Fetters with one out in the ninth to give Minnesota a 4-2 lead . But Milwaukee tied it up in the bottom of the ninth on pinch-hitter Dave Nilsson 's two-run double .

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Tony Clark

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Tony Clark

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BASEBALL - MAJOR LEAGUE RESULTS THURSDAY . NEW YORK 1996-08-30 Results of Major League Baseball games played on Thursday ( home team in CAPS ) : American League DETROIT 4 Kansas City 1 Minnesota 6 MILWAUKEE 1 CALIFORNIA 14 New York 3 SEATTLE 9 Baltimore 6 National League [START_ENT] San Diego [END_ENT] 3 NEW YORK 2 Chicago 4 HOUSTON 3 Cincinnati 18 COLORADO 7 Atlanta 5 PITTSBURGH 1 Los Angeles 2 MONTREAL 1 Florida 10 ST LOUIS 9

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San Diego

Provenance

Wikipedia article: San Diego

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N. Korea urges S. Korea to return war veteran . SEOUL 1996-08-31 [START_ENT] North Korea [END_ENT] demanded on Saturday that South Korea return a northern war veteran who has been in the South since the 1950-53 war , Seoul 's unification ministry said . " ...I request the immediate repatriation of Kim In-so to North Korea where his family is waiting , " North Korean Red Cross president Li Song-ho said in a telephone message to his southern couterpart , Kang Young-hoon . Li said Kim had been critically ill with a cerebral haemorrhage . The message was distributed to the press by the South Korean unification ministry . Kim , an unrepentant communist , was captured during the Korean War and released after spending more than 30 years in a southern jail . He submitted a petition to the International Red Cross in 1993 asking for his repatriation . The domestic Yonhap news agency said the South Korean government would consider the northern demand only if the North accepted Seoul 's requests , which include regular reunions of families split by the Korean War . Government officials were not available to comment . South Korea in 1993 unconditionally repatriated Li In-mo , a nothern partisan seized by the South during the war and jailed for more than three decades .

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North Korea

Provenance

Wikipedia article: North Korea

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World Markets Overnight Summary - Aug 30 . NEW YORK 1996-08-29 WORLD MARKETS ROUND-UP STOCKS GOLD METALS NY Dow close London opening LME close 5647.65 ( - 64.73 ) $ 387.70 copper per tonne Nikkei latest CRUDE OIL $ 1987.0 20202.87 ( - 350.29 ) Sept Brent zinc per tonne FTSE close $ 21.25 $ 1000.0 3885.0 ( - 33.7 ) ----- oOo----- STOCKS SINK AS BOND RATES JUMP ON STRONG DATA Blue-chip stocks sank to their biggest loss since mid-July Thursday as fresh signs of a surprisingly strong economy boosted long-term bond interest rates above 7 percent . The dollar rose slightly against the German mark , but edged lower against the Japanese yen . The Dow Jones industrial average ended down 64.73 points at 5,647.65 , its largest drop since July 15 , when it closed with a loss of 161 points . In the broader market , declining issues beat advances 1,627 to 743 on moderate volume of 321 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange . In the bond market , the 30-year Treasury bond fell 23/32 of a point , or $ 7.1875 on a $ 1,000 bond , raising its yield to 7.04 percent -- the highest since July 31 -- from 6.98 percent at Wednesday 's close . " Seven percent creates psychological problems and a legitimate competitor for money from equities , " said Ralph Bloch , chief technical analyst at Raymond James . " We could carry another 100 points lower in the Dow , " he said . " I 'm telling clients things are dicey going into next Friday ( Sept . 6 ) so let 's be careful . " Wall Street on Sept . 6 faces the key monthly employment report , which has been known to cause dramatic swings in stock prices . " We had two very strong economic reports , " said David Shulman , Salomon Bros . ' chief equity strategist . " There are more worries in bond land . Fears of a Fed tightening next month have resurfaced for the first time since the end of July . " The Commerce Department reported that the nation 's gross domestic product expanded at a 4.8 percent annual rate in the three months from April through June instead of the 4.2 percent estimated a month ago . In another report , sales of new homes jumped unexpectedly in July to the briskest rate in five months , driving prices up in a strong housing market . Sales shot up 7.9 percent last month to a seasonally adjusted annual rate of 783,000 units -- the strongest since February , when new homes were selling at a rate of 784,000 a year . Analysts said the stock market was also worried about the impact on President Clinton 's re-election bid of his top political strategist resigning . Dick Morris , who is credited with resurrecting Clinton 's political fortunes over the past 18 months by masterminding his turn to the political centre , quit after a supermarket tabloid reported he engaged in a yearlong affair with a prostitute , with whom he allegedly shared confidential campaign documents . Analysts said Wall Street had grown accustomed to a moderate Republican in the form of [START_ENT] Democratic [END_ENT] President Clinton . Morris ' departure raised fears that Clinton would veer more to the left in a second term . The dollar closed at 1.4772 marks , up from 1.4767 late Wednesday . The dollar slipped to 108.40 yen from 108.45 . Oil markets rose sharply on a combination of low stocks , two hurricanes and allegations of illicit trading by Iraq . September heating oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange closed 1.63 cents higher at 63.67 cents a gallon , September unleaded gasoline finished 1.39 cents up at 63.72 cents a gallon and October crude rose 44 cents to $ 22.15 a barrel . December cotton closed 0.95 cent higher at 77.06 cents per pound on the New York Cotton Exchange despite some easing of concern about the twin hurricane threat to key U.S. growing areas with forecasts indicating both storms may remain offshore . Overseas , London 's FTSE 100 index had earlier climbed to 3,8921.1 just below its record of 3,922.1 , before edging down through the afternoon session to finish the day at 3,885.0 , a fall of 33.7 points . In Tokyo , the key 225-share Nikkei average shed 156.65 points , or 0.76 percent , to end at 20,553.16 .

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Democratic Party (United States)

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Democratic Party (United States)

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GOLF - PARNEVIK TAKES ONE-SHOT LEAD AT GREATER MILWAUKEE OPEN . MILWAUKEE , Wisconsin 1996-08-31 Jesper Parnevik of Sweden fired a course record-tying eight-under-par 63 Saturday to take a one-shot lead into the final round of the $ 1.2 million Greater Milwaukee Open . Parnevik , who is seeking his first [START_ENT] PGA Tour [END_ENT] victory , moved to 19-under 194 for the tournament . Parnevik tied the 18-hole record set by Loren Roberts in 1994 at the Brown Deer Park Golf Course and also equalled Saturday by Greg Kraft . Nolan Henke , who led by two strokes entering the third round , carded a four-under 67 and was one stroke back at 18-under 195 . He is striving for his fourth career PGA Tour victory and first since the 1993 BellSouth Classic . Tiger Woods , who made the cut in his first tournament as a professional , shot a two-over-par 73 and was four under for the tournament . The 20-year-old Woods , who turned professional Tuesday after winning an unprecedented third successive U.S. Amateur Championship , struggled on the front nine , bogeying the first and seventh holes and double-bogeying the par-four , 359-yard ninth hole . After bogeying the 10th hole to move to four-over for the round , he rallied for birdies on 15 and 18 . After Parnevik started off his round by parring the first hole and bogeying the second , the Swede birdied six of the next seven holes . Parnevik continued to storm through the course , birdying three holes on the back nine , including two from 12 feet out on the 15th and 17th holes . " I ca n't remember when I 've putted this well , " said Parnevik . " I was disappointed when a 12-footer did n't go in . " My game feels very good . I 've been fading my driver but today whenever I set up for a fade it went straight . Whenever everyone 's making birdies , you never want to be even par . " Henke had a bogey-free round and birdied four holes , including a 45-footer on the par-three 215-yard seventh hole and one from 12 feet out on the 12th hole . " I did n't hit it very well today , " said Henke . " Jasper blew right by me . Once he did , I knew I had to make birdies just to keep up . I made some really good pars . I basically picked up where I left off yesterday afternoon . " Right now , I ca n't put my finger on what 's wrong . " Bob Estes shot a 67 for sole possession of third place at 15-under . Steve Stricker , who tied for second at last week 's World Series of Golf , and Stuart Appleby were both five shots off the lead at 14 under . Duffy Waldorf , who also tied for second at the World Series of Golf , carded a 70 to lead a group of six golfers at 13 under , including Kraft . The top four on the PGA Tour money list all skipped the tournament .

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PGA Tour

Provenance

Wikipedia article: PGA Tour

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Canadian bonds open softer , spreads to U.S. shrink . TORONTO 1996-08-30 Canadian bonds opened softer on Friday , pulled lower by a sinking U.S. market , but outperformed U.S. bonds on positive Canadian economic data , analysts said . " I think this morning 's Canadian numbers were very supportive of narrower spreads , particularly the current account number , " said Jim Webber , director of fixed-income research with TD Securities Inc . Canada 's 8.0 percent bond due 2023 fell C$ 0.45 to C$ 101.15 to yield 7.894 percent . The [START_ENT] U.S. [END_ENT] 30-year benchmark fell 30/32 to yield 7.12 percent . The spread between benchmark bonds narrowed 77 basis points from 81 basis points at the close of trading on Wednesday . Statistics Canada on Friday reported Canada 's current account moved to a higher-than-expected C$ 1.15 billion second quarter surplus from a C$ 1.62 billion deficit in the first quarter . It was the first surplus since the fourth quarter of 1984 . The agency also reported Canada 's real gross domestic product rose a weaker-than-expected 0.3 percent in the second quarter or 1.3 percent at an annualized rate . While the data provided support for Canadian bonds , both Canadian and U.S. markets weakened after the release of strong U.S. economic data , including a report showing the Chicago Purchasing Managers August index rose to 60 from 51.2 in July . " The purchasing managers ' number is extremely , extremely strong , " said Webber . In other news , the Toronto Bond Traders ' Association said it is recommending that dealings in the Canadian bond market end early at 1400 EDT / 1800 GMT on Friday . The Canadian market typically closes early on holiday weekends and Canadian financial markets will be closed on Monday for Labour Day . In other prices , the 7.0 percent of 2006 fell C$ 0.28 to C$ 96.89 to yield 7.437 percent . The U.S. 10-year benchmark fell 21/32 to yield 6.95 percent . The spread between the two bonds narrowed to 49 basis points from 54 basis points at the close of trading on Thursday . The three-month cash bill traded at 4.04 percent against the U.S. three-month bill at 5.26 percent . -- Jeffrey Hodgson ( 416 ) 941-8105 , e-mail : jeffrey.hodgson@reuters.com

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United States

Provenance

Wikipedia article: United States

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Syria slams Israel on settlements . DAMASCUS 1996-08-30 Syria on Friday condemned Israel 's settlement policy and said Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was preparing for war with Arabs . " Practices of the Israeli government , especially its settlement activities , came to confirm that dealing with this government inflicts the biggest harm on the Arab cause , " state-run Damascus Radio said in a commentary . " When this government insists on stabbing the peace process and tearing it apart , this means that it is preparing for war , " the radio said . Palestinian President Yasser Arafat described this week the decision to expand settlements in the West Bank as a declaration of war . Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza observed a strike on Thursday to protest against the Israeli move . The radio urged Arabs to unify their ranks to thwart the policies of the right-wing Israeli government . " Israel could not confront a united Arab stand or usurp their rights because the Arab rights could be regained when they achieve unity and solidarity , " Damascus radio said . It welcomed the international criticism of Israel 's settlement policies but called for practical steps to force the Israeli government to abandon this policy . " It is important to translate the criticism into pressuring action to prevent Israel from undermining the big international efforts aimed at making the peace process achieve success , " the radio said . Syria and Arabs have been dismayed by [START_ENT] Netanyahu [END_ENT] 's refusal to trade the occupied Arab lands for peace , his support for the expansion of settlements and his insistance on Jerusalem as a unifed capital for Israel . Syria has held sporadic peace talks with Israel since 1991 without achieving a breakthrough .

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Benjamin Netanyahu

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Benjamin Netanyahu

Input

Tripoli decks out for coup celebrations . Mona Eltahawy TRIPOLI 1996-08-30 Libyans are dressing up their capital Tripoli for celebrations on Sunday of the 27th anniversary of the coup which brought Muammar Gaddafi to power . Green flags and banners praise the " great revolution " and promise defiance against United Nations sanctions imposed for Libya 's refusal to hand over for trial two suspects wanted in connection with the 1988 bombing of a [START_ENT] Pan Am [END_ENT] flight over Lockerbie , Scotland . " We have chosen the challenge because it is our only option , " proclaimed one banner on the road to Tripoli airport which serves only internal flights because of the sanctions . Huge stadium lights are directed at the city 's Green Square where makeshift stages await Sunday 's festivities . Three African leaders -- from Niger , Guinea and Ghana -- are expected to attend the celebrations marking September 1 , 1969 when a group of young army officers , led by a 27-year-old Gaddafi , deposed King Mohammed Idris . " The revolution has brought us great achievements ... We are comfortable the revolution has taken care of us , improved our lives and given us capabilites , " Samer Ammar Soliman , 42 , told Reuters as he came out of Friday prayers . But some Libyans have begun to show their discontent in the country 's east , which has become a hotbed of militant violence . Tripoli-based diplomats and exiled opponents said Gaddafi 's airforce blasted in July rebel strongholds in the mountainous Jebel al-Akhdar region . Travellers arriving in Egypt say militants and police officers clash regularly in Benghazi . At least 20 people were killed in the capital in early July after bodyguards loyal to Gaddafi 's sons fired at spectators of a football match who were chanting subversive slogans . Gaddafi has dismissed any unrest as the work of foreigners , and last year deported thousands of Sudanese and Egyptian workers .

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Answer

Pan American World Airways

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Pan American World Airways

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Consumer spending , incomes edge up in July . Glenn Somerville WASHINGTON 1996-08-30 Consumer spending barely edged up in July , the Commerce Department said Friday , as income growth slowed abruptly to the weakest pace in six months . Spending rose 0.2 percent to a seasonally adjusted annual rate of $ 5.15 trillion after dropping a revised 0.4 percent in June . Incomes from wages , salaries and all other sources gained 0.1 percent to a rate of $ 6.47 trillion after a 0.9 percent jump in June . Department officials said July 's slight gain in incomes was the weakest for any month since January , when they were flat . Wages and salaries came under pressure in July as a shorter average workweek and lower hourly earnings cut into paychecks . The department said wages and salaries decreased by $ 6.9 billion in July after climbing $ 45 billion in June . " In July , average weekly hours and average hourly earnings declined , more than offsetting the effect of an increase in employment , " Commerce said . But more money went into savings accounts , as savings held at 5.3 cents out of each dollar earned in both June and July . That was the highest savings rate since October last year , when 5.5 cents out of each dollar earned was being saved . The generally lackluster report on spending and incomes in July had been expected . At the same time , the department said in a separate report that new orders received by U.S. factories climbed strongly in July , with widespread gains across most major categories . Orders increased 1.8 percent to a seasonally adjusted $ 317.6 billion , significantly stronger than the 1 percent rise forecast by [START_ENT] Wall Street [END_ENT] economists . That followed a revised 0.7 percent decline in June orders . Commerce said previously that spending at retail stores was up only 0.1 percent in July , partly because of softer sales of new cars and light trucks . In addition , the Labour Department 's July employment report had foreshadowed the muted income growth . It showed average hourly earnings fell in July by 0.2 percent to $ 11.00 and the average workweek shortened to 34.3 hours from 34.7 in June . Gains in personal income , which includes wages and salaries as well as income from sources such as dividends , interest and businesses , are essential for funding consumer purchases , which fuel two-thirds of national economic activity . Spending on all types of durable goods , which includes cars , fell to an annual rate of $ 626.3 billion in July from $ 633.6 billion in June . But spending on nondurable products increased moderately to a rate of $ 1.55 trillion from $ 1.54 trillion in June , while spending for services was up to $ 2.97 trillion in July from $ 2.96 trillion . Payrolls of manufacturing companies rose in July by $ 2.3 billion to an annual rate of $ 678 billion .

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Answer

New York Stock Exchange

Provenance

Wikipedia article: New York Stock Exchange

Input

CYCLING - TOUR OF NETHERLANDS FINAL RESULTS / STANDINGS . LANDGRAAF , Netherlands 1996-08-31 Leading results of the 205-km sixth and final stage of the Tour of the Netherlands between Roermond and Landgraaf on Saturday : 1. Olaf Ludwig ( Germany ) Telekom 4 hours 48 mins 2 seconds 2. Giovanni Lombardi ( Italy ) Polti 5 seconds behind 3. Tristan Hoffman ( Netherlands ) TVM same time 4. Erik Breukink ( Netherlands ) Rabobank 8 seconds 5. Jesper Skibby ( Denmark ) TVM 9 6. Vyacheslav Ekimov ( Russia ) [START_ENT] Rabobank [END_ENT] same time 7. Luca Pavanello ( Italy ) Aki 11 8. Eleuterio Anguita ( Spain ) MX Onda 9. Michael Andersson ( Sweden ) Telekom 10. Johan Capiot ( Belgium ) Collstrop all same time Final overall placings ( after six stages ) : 1. Rolf Sorensen ( Denmark ) Rabobank 20:36:54 2. Lance Armstrong ( U.S. ) Motorola 2 seconds behind 3. Ekimov 1:7 4. Marco Lietti ( Italy ) MG-Technogym 1:16 5. Erik Dekker ( Netherlands ) Rabobank 1:23 6. Ludwig 1:25 6. Breukink same time 8. Maarten den Bakker ( Netherlands ) TVM 1:33 9. Andersson 1:34 10. Skibby 1:45

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Answer

Team Jumbo–Visma

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Team Jumbo–Visma

Input

Opposition group says Iraqis advance in north Iraq . LONDON 1996-08-31 An Iraqi opposition group in exile said on Saturday it had received reports that Iraqi forces were shelling and advancing on the Kurdish town of Arbil in northern Iraq . A London-based spokesman of the Iraqi National Congress said Iraqi artillery was shelling the city and Iraqi tanks had advanced to within 10 km ( six miles ) of Arbil , the administrative centre of the Kurdish rebel-controlled region of northern Iraq . " At 4.50 a.m. Iraq time ( 0050 GMT ) Iraqi forces began an artillery attack on the outskirts of Arbil , " the spokesman , who asked not to be identified , told [START_ENT] Reuters [END_ENT] in a telephone call . There was no independent confirmation of the report which the spokesman said came from the organisation 's members in Arbil . He said damage and casualties in the city were heavy and Kurdish forces were defending the city . President Bill Clinton on Friday ordered the U.S. military to ready itself for any possible action as Washington turned up the heat in an escalating crisis over Iraqi troop movements in northern Iraq . On Thursday , Iraq accused Iran of aggression and said it reserved the right to retaliate for Tehran 's alleged deployment of troops into northern Iraq , where fighting broke out between the two main Iraqi Kurdish rebel groups two weeks ago .

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Reuters

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Reuters

Input

Yeltsin visits wife Naina in hospital - Interfax . MOSCOW 1996-08-30 Russian President Boris Yeltsin visited his wife Naina in hospital on Friday evening , Interfax news agency quoted spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembsky as saying . Naina Yeltsin had a kidney operation last Saturday . Earlier Russian news reports had said [START_ENT] Yeltsin [END_ENT] 's children and grandchildren had visited the Russian first lady but they said only that Yeltsin , on vacation outside Moscow , had spoken to her by telephone . " Naina Yeltsin looks well , she is active , she is clearly getting better , " Yastrzhembsky quoted Yeltsin as saying . Naina Yeltsin is recovering in Moscow 's Central Clinical Hospital , where the president himself was treated twice last year for heart attacks . Yeltsin , 65 , has been seen only rarely since he was elected for a second term in office on July 3 , although his aides have denied a string of rumours that he has been taken ill again . Yastrzhembsky said Yeltsin had travelled from the hospital to spend the night at the Barvikha sanatorium outside Moscow . He was likely to return on Saturday to his holiday resort , a hunting lodge some 100 km ( 60 miles ) from Moscow .

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Boris Yeltsin

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Boris Yeltsin

Input

SOCCER - REAL SCRAPE 1-1 DRAW IN SCRAPPY OPENING MATCH . LA CORUNA , Spain 1996-08-31 A late goal by newly-signed defender Roberto Carlos saved the blushes of Real Madrid coach Fabio Capello and his multi-billion peseta line-up in the opening game of the Spanish championship on Saturday . The Brazilian 's 79th-minute effort was enough to earn Real a point from a scrappy 1-1 draw at fellow title contenders Deportivo Coruna . Deportivo started strongly , taking the lead midway through the first half when former Auxerre playmaker Corentine Martins headed home a corner after a flick-on by Brazilian-born Spanish international midfielder Donato . Real looked to be in deep trouble shortly after the break when Luis Milla was sent off for committing two bookable offences in as many minutes . But Deportivo were unable to capitalise on their numerical advantage , and were themselves reduced to ten men when Armando Alvarez was sent off 15 minutes from time . Shortly afterwards Roberto Carlos found space in the home defence and equalised for Real with a shot that was deflected past despairing Deportivo ' keeper Jacques Songo'o . In a frantic final five minutes there were chances at both ends , and Donato , who had earlier been booked , was sent off for protesting about the incursion of Real players at a free kick . Before the match Deportivo chairman Augusto Lendoiro said he would ignore a FIFA decision banning Brazilian midfielder Mauro Silva from playing in the match for failing to join his national side 's tour of [START_ENT] Europe [END_ENT] . In the event , coach John Toshack decided not to use Silva , who had claimed he did not join the Brazil squad because he had lost his passport .

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Europe

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Europe

Input

Iraqi Kurds say Iranian troops enter north Iraq . ISTANBUL 1996-08-31 Iranian troops on Saturday entered Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq in the wake of an assault backed by Baghdad into the region , an Iraqi Kurdish group told Reuters . " They entered this morning . They have occupied the area to the depth of 40 km ( 25 miles ) . They have established a headquarters in Chuman , " Faik Nerweyi of the Kurdistan Democratic Party ( KDP ) told Reuters by telephone from Ankara . Nerweyi said he did not know the size or nature of the Iranian force in northern Iraq , but said KDP fighters had been easily outgunned in the area close to the Iranian border and had quickly withdrawn further west . " They were far too strong , " he said . Nerweyi said he did not know if there were any casualties . A U.N. official in Baghdad said the KDP , backed by Iraqi tanks , heavy artillery and helicopters had taken control of the main northern Iraqi city of Arbil after fighting on Saturday . U.S. President [START_ENT] Bill Clinton [END_ENT] has authorised the repositioning of U.S. firepower in the Gulf region in response to the Iraqi attacks . The KDP charges that the rival Patriotic Union of Kurdistan , which took control of Arbil in fighting in December 1994 , has backing from Iran . The PUK accuses the KDP of collaborating with Baghdad . Northern Iraq has been under Iraqi Kurdish control since after the 1991 Gulf War . U.S.-led allied planes based in Turkey are intended to protect the Kurds from Baghdad .

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Answer

Bill Clinton

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Bill Clinton

Input

BASKETBALL - BENETTON BEAT DINAMO 92-81 . BELGRADE 1996-08-31 Benetton of [START_ENT] Italy [END_ENT] beat Dinamo of Russia 92-81 ( halftime 50-28 ) in a fifth place play-off in the Trofej Beograd 96 international basketball tournament on Saturday .

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Answer

Italy

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Italy

Input

BASEBALL - MAJOR LEAGUE STANDINGS AFTER THURSDAY 'S GAMES . NEW YORK 1996-08-30 Major League Baseball standings after games played on Thursday ( tabulate under won , lost , winning percentage and games behind ) : AMERICAN LEAGUE EASTERN DIVISION W L PCT GB NEW YORK 74 59 .556 - BALTIMORE 70 63 .526 4 BOSTON 69 65 .515 5 1/2 TORONTO 63 71 .470 11 1/2 DETROIT 48 86 .358 26 1/2 CENTRAL DIVISION CLEVELAND 80 53 .602 - CHICAGO 71 64 .526 10 MINNESOTA 67 67 .500 13 1/2 MILWAUKEE 64 71 .474 17 KANSAS CITY 61 74 .452 20 WESTERN DIVISION TEXAS 75 58 .564 - SEATTLE 70 63 .526 5 OAKLAND 64 72 .471 12 1/2 CALIFORNIA 62 72 .463 13 1/2 FRIDAY , AUGUST 30 SCHEDULE KANSAS CITY AT DETROIT CHICAGO AT TORONTO MINNESOTA AT MILWAUKEE CLEVELAND AT [START_ENT] TEXAS [END_ENT] NEW YORK AT CALIFORNIA BOSTON AT OAKLAND BALTIMORE AT SEATTLE NATIONAL LEAGUE EASTERN DIVISION W L PCT GB ATLANTA 83 49 .629 - MONTREAL 71 61 .538 12 FLORIDA 64 70 .478 20 NEW YORK 59 75 .440 25 PHILADELPHIA 54 80 .403 30 CENTRAL DIVISION HOUSTON 72 63 .533 - ST LOUIS 69 65 .515 2 1/2 CINCINNATI 66 67 .496 5 CHICAGO 65 66 .496 5 PITTSBURGH 56 77 .421 15 WESTERN DIVISION SAN DIEGO 75 60 .556 - LOS ANGELES 72 61 .541 2 COLORADO 70 65 .519 5 SAN FRANCISCO 57 74 .435 16 FRIDAY , AUGUST 30 SCHEDULE ATLANTA AT CHICAGO FLORIDA AT CINCINNATI SAN DIEGO AT MONTREAL LOS ANGELES AT PHILADELPHIA HOUSTON AT PITTSBURGH SAN FRANCISCO AT NEW YORK COLORADO AT ST LOUIS

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Answer

Texas Rangers (baseball)

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Texas Rangers (baseball)

Entity Linking - WNED-WIKI

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A panhandle is an American informal geographic term for an elongated arm-like protrusion of a geo-political entity , such as a or a sovereign state . The term " panhandle " derives from the analogous part of a , and its use is generally confined to the United States . A term used elsewhere is salient , derived from . While similar to a peninsula in shape , a panhandle is not surrounded by water on three sides and connected to a [START_ENT] geographical [END_ENT] mainland . Instead , it is delimited by a land border on at least two sides and extends out from the larger geographical body of the administrative unit . The panhandle shape is the result of arbitrarily drawn international or boundaries , although the location of some administrative borders takes into account other considerations such as economic ties or topography . In the United States , a protrusion with a less elongated shape is informally called a bootheel . † This definition of the Florida panhandle includes the following counties : Bay , Calhoun , Escambia , Franklin , Gadsden , Gulf , Holmes , Jackson , Jefferson , Leon , Liberty , Madison , Okaloosa , Santa Rosa , Taylor , Wakulla , Walton , and Washington . Outside the United States , the term is not in common usage , with the arguable exception of the nearby New Brunswick Panhandle

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Physical geography

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Physical geography

Input

The Cyclone Taylor Award is the award given each year to the on the Vancouver Canucks ( a National Hockey League team ) . It is named after Cyclone Taylor , a professional ice hockey forward who led the [START_ENT] Vancouver Millionaires [END_ENT] to the Stanley Cup in 1915 . The award was dedicated to him prior to the 1979-80 Canuck season , the season after his death on June 9 , 1979 , although an award for the Canucks MVP has existed since the team 's inauguration in 1970 . Previously it was a Canucks MVP Award as selected by the fans while the other MVP award , the President 's Trophy was selected by and later Canadian Airlines . However after the 1995 -- 96 season , the Cyclone Taylor Trophy officially became the lone Canucks MVP award since the winners of each trophy was identical . The most prolific winner of the Cyclone Taylor Trophy is Markus Naslund , who has been awarded five times ( including four straight from 2001 to 2004 ) , followed by Trevor Linden with four . The trophy 's present holder is Cory Schneider ( 2013

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Vancouver Millionaires

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Wikipedia article: Vancouver Millionaires

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The 1966 -- 68 Liga Leumit season was the thirteenth in the league 's history , and is notable for the Israel Football Association 's decision to play it over two years as a play to combat corruption and increasing violence at matches . The sixteen teams played each other four times during the season , effectively combining two seasons into one , leading it to be known as the double season ( , HaOna HaKfula ) . At the end of the season SK Nes Tziona and Hapoel Mahane Yehuda were relegated to Liga Alef . Neither team has returned to the top flight since . They were replaced by Hapoel Kfar Saba and Beitar Jerusalem . As champions , Maccabi Tel Aviv entered the , which they won . Maccabi Netanya 's Mordechai Spiegler was the season 's top scorer with 38 goals - 15 during 1966 -- 67 and 23 in 1967 -- 68 . The season began with a protests from relegated players , with the uproar reaching as far as the Knesset . In an attempt to restore order to the game and solve the issues raised , the IFA decided to spread the league games over two years instead of one . The main objectives were to put an end to the riots on the field , reducing trouble at matches and improve the quality of play , as well as infusing new blood into teams by alleviating the immediate fear of relegation . The double season format involved all the Maccabi ( Haifa , Maccabi Jaffa , Netanya , Sha'arayim and Tel Aviv ) and Hapoel ( Be'er Sheva , Haifa , Jerusalem , [START_ENT] Mahane Yehuda [END_ENT] , Petah Tikva , and Tel Aviv

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Hapoel Mahane Yehuda F.C.

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Wikipedia article: Hapoel Mahane Yehuda F.C.

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Ficoll is a neutral , highly branched , high-mass , polysaccharide which dissolves readily in aqueous solution s. Ficoll radii range from 2-7 nm . It is prepared by reaction of the polysaccharide with epichlorohydrin . Ficoll is a registered trademark owned by GE Healthcare companies . Ficoll is part of Ficoll-Paque which is used in biology laboratories to separate blood to its components ( s , s etc ) . Ficoll-Paque is normally placed at the bottom of a conical tube , and blood is then slowly layered above Ficoll-Paque . After being centrifuge d , the following layers will be visible in the conical tube , from top to bottom : plasma and other constituents , a layer of mono-nuclear cells called [START_ENT] buffy coat [END_ENT] ( / MNC ) , Ficoll-Paque , and erythrocytes & which should be present in pellet form . This separation allows easy harvest of PBMC 's . Note that some red blood cell trapping ( presence of erythrocytes & granulocytes ) may occur in the PBMC or Ficoll-Paque layer . Major may sometimes occur in the PBMC layer . Ethylene diamine tetra-acetate ( ) and heparin are commonly used in conjunction with Ficoll-Paque ( TM ) to prevent clotting . At one time , fairly early in the research for diabetes treatment by transplantation , Ficoll was used in an attempt to separate islets of Langerhans from enzyme ( collagenase ) digested human pancreatic tissue . The theory was that separated islets could then be used for transplantation into patients with . In practice , using Ficoll led to difficulty obtaining a pure enough preparation of islets , with enough islet recovery from the original tissue , for safe and effective islet transplantation in humans . Because Ficoll-Paque layering is a very slow process , devices that aid in the most time-consuming step , the overlay , have been developed . One such a product is SepMate-50 , a specialized tube containing a porous insert that forms a physical barrier between the Ficoll-Paque and blood sample . This allows the blood sample to be rapidly pipetted onto the insert , avoiding the need for overlaying it directly onto Ficoll-Paque . The SepMate insert also reduces the duration of the centrifugation step , and after centrifugation , the top layer containing plasma and PBMCs can be poured into a new tube . Other devices include a column containing a porous high-density polyethylene barrier or " frit . " These products allow blood to be layered on much more quickly without mixing polysaccharide and blood . An example of such a product is the " Accuspin System Histopaque-1077 " sold by Sigma Aldrich . The cost of this product is significantly higher than basic Ficoll and Ficoll-Paque products . It is also possible to have the Ficoll-Paque separating system included in the Vacutainer

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Buffy coat

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Buffy coat

Input

Roy Vincent ( 6 February 1892 -- 5 June 1965 ) was an Australian politician and a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly from 1922 until 1953 . He was a member of the " True Blue " faction of the Progressive Party until it became the Country Party in 1927 . He was the party 's Deputy Leader and Whip between 1950 and 1953 . He held ministerial rank as the Secretary of Mines and Minister for Forests between 1932 and 1941 . Vincent was born at Glen Innes , New South Wales and was the son of a newspaper editor . He was educated at Uralla and became a newspaper reporter but eventually edited and owned the Don Dorrigo Gazette in Dorrigo . He became active in community organizations including the New England New State Movement of Earle Page , the Returned and Services League of Australia and the Aboriginal Protection Board . Vincent served in the First Australian Imperial Force during World War One and was severely wounded and gassed in France . Vincent was elected to the parliament as a Progressive Party member for in the multi-member seat of Oxley at the 1922 state election . He defeated the sitting member and his Progressive Party colleague . He moved to the seat of Raleigh as a member of the Country Party when New South Wales reverted to single member electorates at the 1927 election . He retained this seat for the next eight elections and retired at the 1953 election . The state election of 1932 saw the landslide defeat of Labor and the formation of a conservative coalition government by Bertram Stevens . Vincent was the and Minister for Forrests throughout the premiership of Stevens and his successor Alexander Mair whose government was defeated at the [START_ENT] 1941 [END_ENT]

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1941 New South Wales state election

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Wikipedia article: 1941 New South Wales state election

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John Burton was a Labour Party councillor in County Durham , England . He was a member of Sedgefield Borough Council , representing the of Fishburn and Old Trimdon . However , he is most notable for being the constituency agent of former British Prime Minister Tony Blair , who represented the Sedgefield constituency from 1983 until standing down as Prime Minister in 2007 . Burton was one of the first to spot the potential of the young Tony Blair . When the new Sedgefield consitituency was created for the 1983 general election , which included Burton 's home of Trimdon , the local Labour Party found themselves needing to appoint a candidate for the forthcoming election at short notice . Blair , then a London - based [START_ENT] barrister [END_ENT] , identified Burton as a branch secretary willing to consider his candidature and travelled to Trimdon ( Burton 's power base ) to put his case . Blair secured the nomination , was elected an MP and began his political rise . Burton has remained one of Blair 's inner circle . In the Sedgefield Council Register of Members ' Interests Burton also lists himself as Political Assistant to Rt. . Hon. Tony Blair , MP Myrobella House , Farfield Terrace , Trimdon Station , Co. . Durham , TS29 6DU . The Sunday newspaper The Observer reported in December 2007 that Burton plans to write a book about Tony Blair . According to Sedgefield Council 's Register of Members ' Interests , Burton is a member of the Transport and General Workers ' Union , a , and a governor of Trimdon College . He was formerly a physical education teacher . He is , unlike the Newcastle - supporting Blair , a devoted fan of Sunderland A.F.C.

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Barrister

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Barrister

Input

Gabriel Bouvery ( died 1572 ) was a French , successor to who died 12 April 1540 . intervened with the chapter of Angers Cathedral , imposing the nomination of Bouvery . The king had taken the 1534 Affair of the Placards badly , as far as his attitude to toleration of Protestants went . Bouvery was the nephew of Guillaume Poyet , a courtier close to the king and son of who had been mayor of Angers . It was a political appointment aimed at royal control in the Catholic Church , in a successor to the late Jean V Olivier . In 1553 Bouvert consecrated the new church of in Saumur , founded by Olivier . He worked to implement the decisions of the Council of Trent , which he attended . Through his uncle , Bouvery became patron of Guillaume Postel ; he was patron also of Jean Bodin . On the 1560 accession of Charles IX of France , religious war in France came into the open . Bouvery put in place an Angevin Catholic League , in 1567 : it comprised 59 of the nobility , with others including , the . The diocese was spared the worst of the violence . Fighting continued to the Peace of Longjumeau ( 1568 ) and Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye ( 1570 ) . Bouvery died on 10 February 1572 . He was succeeded by , . Fresh violence in 1572 followed shortly on the of August ; the governor of [START_ENT] Anjou [END_ENT] was then in Paris , but entrusted plans to attack Protestants in Saumur and Angers to , baron of Montsoreau

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Anjou

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Anjou

Input

Interstate 691 ( abbreviated I-691 ) is a portion of the [START_ENT] Interstate Highway System [END_ENT] in Connecticut beginning at Interstate 91 in Meriden and ending at Interstate 84 near the Cheshire - Southington town line . It is in length , including of the exit ramp to the merge with westbound I-84 . I-691 is also known as the Henry D. Altobello Highway for its entire length . I-691 is the main east -- west highway of the city of Meriden . The freeway actually begins in Middlefield as Route 66 , technically becoming I-691 at the junction with I-91 ( Exit 11 ) . However , westbound signage indicates I-691 begins at the start of the freeway ( just west of Exit 13 ) , while eastbound signage shows I-691 ending at the Route 15 interchange ( at eastbound Exit 10 about west of the interchange with I-91 ) . To go from I-91 northbound to I-691 westbound ( or from I-691 eastbound to I-91 southbound ) , one must actually use Route 15 . In the 1940s , the I-691 routing was part of a planned US 6A Expressway from Southington to Willimantic . A section of the expressway ( from its Middlefield terminus west to Exit 8 ) first opened in 1966 . By 1968 , the US 6A designation was dropped in favor of Route 66 . The highway was extended west to Exit 4 by 1971 . The connection to I-84 was eventually completed in 1987 , with the renumbering to I-691 done at the same time . The portion east of I-91 remained as Route 66 . Environmental and community groups successfully blocked attempts to extend the freeway east of its present terminus due to potential impacts on a reservoir that provides drinking water for the local area . A compromise was reached in the late 1990s allowing CONNDOT to convert Route 66 from a 2-lane road to a 4-lane divided highway from the eastern end of the I-691 freeway to Route 9 in Middletown . Construction on the Route 66

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Interstate Highway System

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Wikipedia article: Interstate Highway System

Input

Katrine Lunde ( born 30 March 1980 in Kristiansand ) is a Norwegian team handball goalkeeper , playing for the Hungarian club [START_ENT] Győri Audi ETO KC [END_ENT] . She is the twin sister of fellow handball player Kristine Lunde-Borgersen . Her sporting achievements include gold medals with the Norwegian national team at the Olympic Games , World Championships and European Championships , as well as club victories in the EHF Champions League , and national championships in both Denmark and Hungary . She started her club career in , and later played for Kristiansand , Våg and Aalborg DH . She won the Champions League with Viborg in and . In 2010 she signed with Hungarian club Győri Audi ETO KC . Lunde made her debut on the Norwegian national team in 2002 , and has played 135 matches and scored 2 goals . She is a four-time European champion ( 2004 , 2006 , 2008 , and 2010 ) . She is World champion from 2011 , received a silver medal at the 2007 World Women 's Handball Championship , and a bronze medal at the 2009 World Championship . In August 2008 , together with her twin sister , she won the gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing . She was selected into the tournament 's All-Star Team , and was also overall top goalkeeper with a 42 % save rate . Lunde was again named goalkeeper of the All-Star Team in the 2008 European Championship

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Győri Audi ETO KC

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Győri Audi ETO KC

Input

Ruby Butler DeMesme was United States Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Manpower , Reserve Affairs , Installations and Environment from 1998 to 2001 . Ruby B. DeMesme was educated at St. Augustine 's College in Raleigh , North Carolina , receiving a in 1969 . She later earned an from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill . From 1969 to 1980 , DeMesme worked as an executive administrator in the Cumberland County , North Carolina Department of Social Services . In 1980 , she joined the United States Department of the Army and spent the next decade working in a number of positions dealing with . From January 1989 to April 1990 , she was a United States Office of Personnel Management Congressional Fellow in the Office of Sen. John Glenn ( D -- ) . She then returned to the Department of the Army . In 1991 , DeMesme moved to the United States Department of the Air Force , becoming Assistant Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Health Affairs , and Morale , Welfare , Recreation and Services Program . In February 1993 , she became Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Force Management and Personnel , being promoted to full Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Force Management and Personnel in May 1994 . On July 6 , 1998 , [START_ENT] President of the United States [END_ENT] Bill Clinton announced his intent to nominate DeMesme to be Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Manpower , Reserve Affairs , Installations and Environment . She was the first African American woman to be appointed to this position . DeMesme retired from government service in 2001 , joining IBM as Senior Defense Fellow and , later becoming Director of Human Capital Solutions & Defense Practices . In 2005 , she joined BearingPoint 's Public Services Business Transformation Team . In May 2009 , she joined Deloitte

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President of the United States

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Wikipedia article: President of the United States

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Hockley Valley Provincial Nature Reserve is a nature reserve located on the Niagara Escarpment within the township of Mono , Ontario , Canada . It is managed by Ontario Parks . Approximately 80 % of the Cannings Falls Area of Natural and Scientific Interest is within the borders of the park ; land acquisitions are planned to encompass it entirely . The Bruce Trail links the reserve to other protected areas of the Niagara Escarpment . The topography of the area was greatly influenced by processes , followed by fluvial erosion . The reserve is characterized by a till moraine and other glacial features , such as kame s and kettles . A deeply cut tributary valley to the Nottawasaga River bisects the reserve through its centre . The Niagara Escarpment 's dolostone [START_ENT] caprock [END_ENT] ( the Amabel Formation ) can be seen in the upper parts of the gorge ; rapids and waterfalls expose stratigraphic succession down to the . Within the reserve , 417 species of vascular plant s , many of which are rare , have been identified . This includes the regionally rare and the , as well as the nationally endangered Butternut , population of which has dwindled due to the disease . Fauna includes the locally rare Northern Long-eared Bat , the nationally vulnerable Louisiana Waterthrush and the Northern Brook Lamprey , as well as the nationally threatened . Recereation in the park is several limited . Due to the park 's designation as a nature reserve , permitted activities are limited to hiking , and

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Caprock

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Wikipedia article: Caprock

Input

Julius Scriver ( February 5 , 1826 -- September 5 , 1907 ) was a politician in Quebec , Canada . Born in , Lower Canada ( now [START_ENT] Quebec [END_ENT] ) , the son of and Lucretia Manning , he studied at the Workman 's School in Montreal and the University of Vermont . He became a miller and tanner in Hemmingford . In 1867 , he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec representing the provincial riding of . In a 1869 by-election , he was acclaimed as Liberal Member of Parliament in the federal riding of Huntingdon . He was re-elected in 1872 ( acclaimed ) , 1874 , 1878 ( acclaimed ) , 1882 , 1887 ( acclaimed ) , 1891 , and 1896 . He died at Westmount

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Quebec

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Quebec

Input

The Province of Calatayud was a of Spain created in the 1822 territorial division of Spain ( 27 January 1822 ) , during the Trienio Liberal of 1820 -- 1823 . It included the Aragon ese comarca s of Comunidad de Calatayud , Campo de Daroca , Aranda , the southern part of Valdejalón ( now in the province of Zaragoza ) , the northern part of the ( now in the Teruel ) , as well as some municipalities that now fall in the provinces of [START_ENT] Soria [END_ENT] and Guadalajara . It had a population of 105,947 , which constituted 0.9 percent of the Spanish population of the time . Its capital was Calatayud . With the restoration of absolutism , this territorial division was revoked 1 October 1823 . Although Javier de Burgos 's 1833 territorial division of Spain was very close to that of 1833 , the province of Calatayud was not recreated ; the other two major changes were the omission of the provinces of Villafranca del Bierzo and Játiva

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Province of Soria

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Province of Soria

Input

Andrew " Andy " Carter ( born 27 August 1988 , Lincoln ) is an English cricket er who currently plays for Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club . A right handed batsman and right hand medium pace bowler he made his first class debut for Nottinghamshire in a university match against Oxford UCCE in June 2009 . In 2010 , Carter signed a new two-year contract with Nottinghamshire that keeps him at the club until the end of 2012 . Carter made his debut as a 20 year old for Nottinghamshire against Oxford UCCE . He took just two wickets in the match claiming figures of 1-41 and 1-27 | in the first and second innings respectively . He made his List A debut on 9 August 2009 in a loss against Essex in a Pro40 game at Garons Park . Carter took 3 wickets for 32 runs in the first innings to help dismiss Essex for 224 . Following Carter 's impressive beginning to his one-day career , he played in various further one-day games in 2009 . His best figures came on 7 September against Sussex at Hove . He took 2 wickets for 44 in eight overs as Nottinghamshire fell to a heavy 152 run defeat . In 2010 , Carter was restricted to second XI and league cricket appearances which lead to Nottinghamshire agreeing a one-month loan deal with Essex . In only Carter 's second game for Essex he took 3 wickets in second innings of the match against Yorkshire , also taking 1 wicket in the fourth innings in a drawn match . In the following match , a one-day game against Northamptonshire , he took 2 wickets for 33 runs in a nine-wicket victory for Essex . In late July , Carter took his career best bowling figures of 7-121 in the County Championship against Kent , also achieving his first five-wicket haul of 5-40 in the same match . Despite this Essex lost the match by 99 runs . In March 2011 , Carter was selected and played for the England Lions . He played in one four-day match against the Winward Islands where he took 2 wickets for 30 runs in the second innings of the match as England Lions recorded a 258 run victory . Carter featured prominently in the Nottinghamshire 2011 T20 campaign as he played seven matches . His best figures came against [START_ENT] Derbyshire [END_ENT] where he recorded 4 wickets for 20 runs in his four overs helping Nottinghamshire to a 38 run victory . He followed this up in his second match by claiming figures of 2-38 against Yorkshire

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Answer

Derbyshire County Cricket Club

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Wikipedia article: Derbyshire County Cricket Club

Input

Manfred “ Manny ” Seissler ( German : Manfred Seißler ) ( born August 8 , 1939 in Germany ) is a former U.S.-German player who began his career in the lower German divisions before moving to the United States . He played one season in the National Professional Soccer League and seven in the . He also earned one with the U.S. national team in 1973 . Seissler began his career in 1960 with the KSV Hessen Kassel junior team . In 1961 , he moved to the first team which competed in the , a regional German league which preceded the creation of the . In 1963 , he moved to ( Second Division ) club 1 . FC Pforzheim . In 1965 , he moved to SV Eintracht Trier 05 of the . In 1967 , he left Germany for the United States where he signed with the Pittsburgh Phantoms of the National Professional Soccer League . The NPSL merged with the [START_ENT] United Soccer Association [END_ENT] in 1968 to form the ( NASL ) . The Phantoms did not enter the new league and Seissler signed with the Kansas City Spurs , playing with the Spurs until they folded following the 1970 season . He then transferred to the Rochester Lancers . In 1973 , the Lancers traded Seissler to the Montreal Olympique but it folded at the end of the season and Seissler returned to the Lancers for the 1974 season . He played only one game , then retired . During his early years in the NASL , Seissler was one of the league ’s top forwards , being named a first team All Star in 1969 , 1970 and 1971 . Seissler earned one with the U.S. national team in a 4-0 loss to Poland on March 20 , 1973 . He started the game , but came off for Siegfried Stritzl

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Answer

United Soccer Association

Provenance

Wikipedia article: United Soccer Association

Input

Inspectorates-General or General Inspectorates ( Turkish : Umumi Müfettişlikler ) was a regional governorship whose authorities prevailed over civilian , military and judicial institutions under their domain of the direct command of Mustafa Kemal in order to establishing authoritarian rule and to consolidate the authority in the process of Turkification of religious and ethnic minorities . The got the law numbered 1164 and dated June 25 , 1927 passed . On January 1 , 1928 , the First Inspectorate-General ( Birinci Umumi Müfettişlik ) including Diyarbakır , Elâzığ , Urfa , Bitlis , Van , , Siirt ve Mardin provinces , was established with the center in Diyarbakır . Before , on February 19 , 1934 , the Second Inspectorate-General ( İkinci Umumi Müfettişlik ) including Kırklareli , Edirne , Tekirdağ and Çanakkale provinces , was established with the center in Edirne On August 25 , 1935 , the Third Inspectorate-General ( Üçüncü Umumi Müfettişlik ) including Ağrı , Kars , Artvin , Rize , Trabzon , Gümüşhne , Erzincan and Erzurum provinces , was established with the center in Erzurum . Before Dersim Rebellion , on June 6 . 1936 , the Fourth Inspectorate-General ( Dördüncü Umumi Müffetişlik ) was established in historical Dersim region that includes Tunceli , Elazığ and [START_ENT] Bingöl [END_ENT] provinces , with the center in

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Answer

Bingöl Province

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Bingöl Province

Input

Hassanine Sebei , , ( born 21 April 1984 in Tajerouine ) is a Tunisia n who specialises in the [START_ENT] 20 kilometres race walk [END_ENT] . He was the 2010 African champion and competed at the 2008 Summer Olympics . He won the silver medal at the 2004 African Championships in Athletics . The following year he took gold medal s at the 2005 Islamic Solidarity Games and the Pan Arab Championships , as well as bronze medal s at both the Jeux de la Francophonie and the African Race Walking Championships . He made his debut in the IAAF World Race Walking Cup the following year and finished 57th overall . He missed out on the medals at the 2006 African Championships in Athletics , taking fourth place in the event . Sebei took part in the 2007 World Championships in Athletics and came in 24th place , the second best African performer . Coached by Hatem Ghoula , he succeeded his tutor to the 20,000 m track walk title at the 2007 Pan Arab Games in November . At the 2008 African Championships in Athletics in Addis Ababa he came in third place and he represented Tunisia at the later that year , where he was 34th in the 20 km walk . In 2009 he was fourth at the Mediterranean Games , had a top twenty finish at the World Championships and ended the year with a silver medal behind at the Jeux de la Francophonie . At the 2010 IAAF World Race Walking Cup he had his best global finish by coming in eleventh place . He won his first continental title at the 2010 African Championships in Athletics , setting a personal best and

Output

Answer

20 kilometres race walk

Provenance

Wikipedia article: 20 kilometres race walk

Input

Omar Jose Navarro , known artistically as Gran Omar , is a Puerto Rican rapper , singer-songwriter , and record producer . He has received production and writing on credits on various albums between 1996 and 2006 by Ivy Queen his former wife . These albums including En Mi Imperio ( 1996 ) , The Original Rude Girl ( 1998 ) , Diva ( 2003 ) , Real ( 2004 ) and Flashback ( 2005 ) . These albums have been met with commercial and critical success within the Latin community . Several singles from these albums have featured Gran Omar including " Quiero Saber " and " Guillaera " among others . They met while in the all-male hip-hop group " The Noise " . He received his first single release writing credit on Ivy Queen 's " In The Zone " featuring Wyclef Jean in 1998 . The song peaked at # 38 on the chart . He also received production credits on Queen 's third and fourth studio albums : Diva ( 2003 ) and Real ( 2004 ) . Diva peaked at # 24 on the chart . On the Billboard Top Heatseekers ( South Atlantic ) chart , the album peaked at # 8 . On the Billboard Reggae Albums chart , the album peaked at # 4 . On the Billboard Tropical Albums chart , the album peaked at # 1 , spending four nonconsecutive weeks at the top with a total of 86 weeks on the chart , becoming the eighth best-selling Tropical Album of 2004 . While , Real , on the chart , peaked at # 25 , one position higher than Diva . On the [START_ENT] Reggae Albums [END_ENT] chart , the album peaked at # 4 , her highest peak on the chart with Diva reaching the same position , while spending a total of 17 consecutive weeks on the chart . On the Billboard Tropical Albums chart , the album peaked at # 6 , not being able to reach Divas peak position of # 1 . Flashback , a retrospective of Queen 's previous hits along with a few new ones featured " Quiero Saber " which is credited to Gran Omar . In its first week of release , Flashback scanned 5000 sales ; however failed to debut on the Billboard 200 . As of March 2007 , the album has scanned over 104,000 sales in the United States and Puerto Rico alone . It was able to break their peak at # 24 on the Billboard Top Latin Albums chart when it reached # 10 . On Billboard Top Heatseekers chart , the album reached # 7 . It reached # 2 on both the Billboard Top Heatseekers for the Pacific and South Atlantic areas . It reached # 3 on the Billboard Latin Rhythm Albums becoming their debut on the newly instated chart . After this chart was instated , it was revealed that reggaetón albums could no longer appear on the Billboard Reggae Albums and Billboard Tropical Albums charts , deeming Flashback ineligible . Omar is credited with the following songs : " Baila Así " , " Dee Jay " , the fourth single from Diva " Guillaera " , " Matando " , " Money Making " , and the second single from Tony Touch 's album The ReggaeTony Album : " Saca La Semilla

Output

Answer

Billboard charts

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Billboard charts

Input

Gabriel Bouvery ( died 1572 ) was a French , successor to who died 12 April 1540 . intervened with the chapter of Angers Cathedral , imposing the nomination of Bouvery . The king had taken the 1534 Affair of the Placards badly , as far as his attitude to toleration of Protestants went . Bouvery was the nephew of Guillaume Poyet , a courtier close to the king and son of who had been mayor of [START_ENT] Angers [END_ENT] . It was a political appointment aimed at royal control in the Catholic Church , in a successor to the late Jean V Olivier . In 1553 Bouvert consecrated the new church of in Saumur , founded by Olivier . He worked to implement the decisions of the Council of Trent , which he attended . Through his uncle , Bouvery became patron of Guillaume Postel ; he was patron also of Jean Bodin . On the 1560 accession of Charles IX of France , religious war in France came into the open . Bouvery put in place an Angevin Catholic League , in 1567 : it comprised 59 of the nobility , with others including , the . The diocese was spared the worst of the violence . Fighting continued to the Peace of Longjumeau ( 1568 ) and Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye ( 1570 ) . Bouvery died on 10 February 1572 . He was succeeded by , . Fresh violence in 1572 followed shortly on the of August ; the governor of Anjou was then in Paris , but entrusted plans to attack Protestants in Saumur and Angers to , baron of Montsoreau

Output

Answer

Angers

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Angers

Input

Julius Scriver ( February 5 , 1826 -- September 5 , 1907 ) was a politician in Quebec , Canada . Born in , Lower Canada ( now Quebec ) , the son of and Lucretia Manning , he studied at the Workman 's School in Montreal and the University of Vermont . He became a miller and tanner in Hemmingford . In 1867 , he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec representing the provincial riding of . In a 1869 by-election , he was acclaimed as Liberal Member of Parliament in the federal riding of Huntingdon . He was re-elected in 1872 ( acclaimed ) , 1874 , 1878 ( acclaimed ) , 1882 , 1887 ( acclaimed ) , 1891 , and 1896 . He died at [START_ENT] Westmount [END_ENT]

Output

Answer

Westmount, Quebec

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Westmount, Quebec

Entity Linking - WNED-CWEB

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Which Way , CDCR ? » ACLU of Southern California Subscribe to RSS feed Follow ACLU of Southern California on Twitter Visit ACLU of Southern California 's Facebook page Visit ACLU of Southern California 's YouTube page Visit ACLU of Southern California 's Flickr page ACLU of Southern California Boisterous Blog of Liberty Home About Legal Legal Intake Search « SB 490 : Let the Voters Make an Informed Decision The Constitution is not a State Secret » Aug01 Which Way , CDCR ? Categories : Criminal Justice , From the Executive Director Print this page by Hector Villagra August 1 , 2011 A few days after the end of the Pelican Bay hunger strike , I was interviewed on KCRW ’s “ Which Way , LA ? ” in the same segment as spokespeople from California Prison Health Services and the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation . The CDCR , through Undersecretary of Operations Scott Kernan , tried to defend its reckless and indiscriminate use of solitary confinement ; it succeeded only in giving an exhibition in government speak . “ Which Way , LA ? ” host Warren Olney asked Kernan if Pelican Bay prisoners in solitary confinement do in fact “ spend at least 22 and a half hours every day in windowless , concrete cells , the remaining time alone in concrete exercise yards . ” Parsing Kernan ’s answer should have yielded , at some point , either a yes or no . Kernan started by stating that “ solitary confinement is a word that ’s used ... loosely ... ” But instead of explaining how he thought the word has been misapplied to Pelican Bay , he just reverted to the talking point that the guys in “ the hole ” are the so-called worst of the worst . “ [ t ] hese inmates again are the most dangerous gang leaders that we have in the state of California and , let the truth be told , in the nation . So these guys are really truly the most dangerous offenders . So we have definitely -- Pelican Bay was built to house the worst of the worst . And it is meant to control their movements considerably ... . So let ’s just be very , very clear that these are bad guys , and so we keep them very controlled . But it is not solitary confinement , nor is it torturous behavior as described by some . Ok , so these guys are the most dangerous , the worst of the worst . But are they in fact kept in windowless , concrete cells for 22 and a half hours a day ? A couple minutes later , when Kernan suggested that there was no overcrowding at Pelican Bay because the inmates are housed in single cells , Olney pressed the question one more time : “ Well , are those single cells , in fact , windowless concrete cells , and are they required to stay there 22 and a half hours a day ? ” Kernan responded : “ Um , well , they have programming , I do n’t know if I would say 22 hours , 22 and a half hours a day , but , probably very close to that . ” This is a sizeable number of words to say , in effect , “ yes . ” What could be the point of Kernan ’s filibustering other than to avoid the real questions : Does it benefit public safety to house inmates in a concrete box ? How do people react to extreme isolation ? Is it inhumane to isolate a person in a windowless concrete cell for 22.5 hours a day for months , years , or even decades ? Mr. Kernan elected to end his interview rather than attempt to answer . Hector Villagra is the Executive Director of the ACLU / SC . Full transcript of Mr. Kernan ’s radio interview : [START_ENT] Warren Olney [END_ENT] : “ Scott Kernan is Undersecretary of the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation , welcome back to our program . I understand that you helped to resolve some of these issues . Which of those that I listed were in fact dealt with , and did the state make some concessions ? ” Scott Kernan : “ I do n’t know that I would say concessions ; you know , the inmates had a list of demands , we took a look at them , and I think that at the end of the day we realized that as you just described a watch cap in inclement weather and a wall calendar did n’t pose significant security concerns and so those changes were made . We ’re also looking at a number of things including the very complicated gang validation process . I ’d also just point out to you that the inmates at Pelican Bay that started this are there because of their behavior . These are the gang leaders that are running the various prison gangs and as such are the scourge of society in our prisons . A lot of violence associated with it . So anyway we did evaluate it and we did make some changes to our policy and we ’re going to look at the other changes that the inmates desire moving forward . ” KCRW : “ What about at the other prisons ? ” Scott Kernan : “ Well really it was , again , generated by inmates at Pelican Bay . So the central issues were related to them and it really is a illustration of the power that these guys represent over other offenders . For at the height of it , six thousand , sixty-five hundred or so , at 13 prisons , although that dissipated very quickly , and really the core hunger strikers were probably under a hundred at Pelican Bay . ” KCRW : “ It ’s been reported that at Pelican Bay many prisoners are in solitary confinement , and then when they are they spend at least 22 and a half hours every day in windowless , concrete cells , the remaining time alone in concrete exercise yards , are those things true ? ” Scott Kernan : “ The solitary confinement is a word that ’s used , I guess , loosely , a little bit . These inmates again are the most dangerous gang leaders that we have in the state of California and , let the truth be told , in the nation . These guys are running the Mexican mafia , the Nuestra Familia , the Black Guerilla family , the Aryan Brotherhood . ” So these guys are really truly the most dangerous offenders . So we have definitely -- Pelican Bay was built to house the worst of the worst . And it is meant to control their movements considerably . I mean these inmates are not there at Pelican Bay for just not obeying simple rules . They ’re in there for murdering inmates , and for you know following through with their criminal enterprises on the street . So let ’s just be very , very clear that these are bad guys , and so we keep them very controlled . But it is not solitary confinement , nor is it torturous behavior as described by some . ” KCRW : “ There ’s a panel of federal judges that have said the conditions within the prisons violate the constitutional ban on cruel and unusual punishment . Did they single out the kind of treatment that I described ? ” Scott Kernan : “ No , not at all . The court decision that you described is overall overcrowding in the system , and the fact that Pelican Bay inmates are largely single cell because they ’re so dangerous . They ’re one of the few areas that we have very reduced overcrowding , while the courts ruled that overall the Department ’s population is overcrowded leading to those constitutional violations ; it had nothing to do with the SHU specifically at Pelican Bay or any of the other SHUs that we have in the state . ” KCRW : “ Well are those single cells , in fact , windowless concrete cells and are they required to stay there 22 and a half hours a day ? ” Scott Kernan : “ Um , well , they have programming , I do n’t know if I would say 22 hours , 22 and a half hours a day , but , probably very close to that . They get an hour a day of yard and showers and if they have to go to they can have visits and go to medical appointments and the like but it is , it is stark correctional environment for our most dangerous offenders . ” KCRW : “ Most dangerous as they are , there are those who say that conditions of that kind can produce panic attacks , depression , inability to concentrate , memory loss , aggression , self-mutilation , and various forms of psychosis . Is that true ? And even if they are worst of the worst , is it appropriate to have those kinds of consequences ? ” Scott Kernan : “ Interesting question . The federal courts have been in the Department of corrections and rehabilitations mental health process for a long time and none of the inmates that are involved in this hunger strike at SHU , we do n’t allow mental health inmates to be there . So any inmate that had any kind of mental health concern would not be housed in the SHU at Pelican Bay . ” KCRW : “ Ok , so how long do you think it will take to resolve these other issues with what , you do n’t want to call solitary confinement , and also with the question of gang validation which they complain as though I understand it that it takes so long that they ’re then accused of being snitches when they get back into the general population or anywhere near it . I suppose if they ’re confined to single cells they ’re not really in the general population . What about those issues ? Will that take you longer to resolve ? ” Scott Kernan : “ It ’s a little bit more complicated than that . What they ’re referring to is about the debriefing process is that when an inmate wants to get out of SHU and wants to disassociate himself with the gangs he can do so and he has to go through a debriefing process . And in that debriefing process he must identify criminal behavior that he ’s been involved in , and others . The SHU inmates are taking umbrage with that suggestion , that that ’s not appropriate . We completely disagree and if you talk to the inmates that have went [ sic ] through the debriefing process and got out of the gang life , they will tell you that the debriefing process , we get it right a hundred percent of the time . So you know while we ’re going to look at all these issues , we definitely think that there could be some changes to the validation and debriefing process but we ’re going to do that with the input of not only the stakeholders of the inmate side but the stakeholders of the law enforcement and the gang investigators that work so hard every day to protect our streets and our prisons . ” KCRW : “ Okay , well thanks for being on our program . ” Scott Kernan : “ Thank you . ” KCRW : “ Scott Kernan , Undersecretary of the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation , elected not to talk with any of our other guests . ” Did you like this ? Share it : Tweet Tags : CDCR , criminal justice , hunger strike , jails project , pelican bay , prison rights , scott kernan , secure housing units , shu , which way la Permanent link to this article : https://www.aclu-sc.org/blog/2011/which-way-cdcr/ Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published . Name : Email : Website : Message : You may use these HTML tags and attributes : <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong> Submit Comment anti-bullying budget bullying california CDCR civics 101 constitution criminal justice death penalty death penalty repeal DREAM act education equality first amendment fullerton gay rights georgia homelessness hunger strike ICE immigrant rights project immigration immigration and customs enforcement it gets better jails project kelly thomas la times lgbt lgbt equality officer-involved shootings orange county pelican bay pride prison rights public safety sb 490 secure communities secure housing units seth walsh project shu tony rackauckas troy davis veterans veterans administration which way laWP Cumulus Flash tag cloud by Roy Tanck requires Flash Player

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Answer

Warren Olney IV

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Warren Olney IV

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Convert XVID to MPEG4 Efficiently Home Support Blog Our Clients Customization Forum You are here : CoolUtils > Convert XVID to MPEG4 Efficiently ConvertersTotal Image ConverterTotal Audio ConverterTotal Movie ConverterTotal HTML ConverterTotal PDF ConverterTotal PDF Converter OCRTotal Doc ConverterTotal Excel ConverterTotal Mail ConverterTotal CAD ConverterTotal GIS ConverterTotal Outlook ConverterTotal CSV ConverterTotal VectorizeTotal Thunderbird ConverterTotal Outlook Express ConverterTotal Webmail Converter TIFF and PDF ToolsTiff PagingTiff SplitterTiff CombineTiff TellerPDF SplitterPDF CombinePDF Combine ProTiff Pdf CleanerTotal PDF PrinterTotal PDF to DXF Converter Graphic toolsTotal Icon OrganizerImage BoxImage2IcoEXIF ViewerTotal Image Slicer MultimediaEpisode PlayeriPod AudioBookTotal iPod ConverterTotal Video JoinerCDukeFolderShinePhoto Music System ToolsTotal Server MonitorTotal Folder MonitorSpace SearcherQuick UnplugTotal Resource Changer File RenameVisual RenamerMulti RenamerTotal Audio Tags CatalogueTotal Doc Organizer Document processingPrint MaestroTotal CAD PrinterTotal CAD View ServerTotal GIS View Server Convert Xvid to MPEG4 Efficiently ( only $ 29.90 ) Windows 2000/NT/XP / 2003/Vista/7 Xvid is a video codec library and a primary competitor to the DivX Pro Codec , which , unlike Xvid , is proprietary software developed by DivX , Inc . Files saved with the help of Xvid can be played with MPlayer , VLC , ffdshow or Perian . Oftentimes users prefer to convert Xvid to MPEG4 files because the latter is more popular than the former . The easiest way to do so is download or use online xvid mpeg4 converter . The downside of such applications , however , is their limited functionality and low quality . The good thing about them is low price and popularity . Somehow , if you are the one who values high quality and functionality , you should consider downloading all-purpose video converter . Try downloading Total Movie Converter by CoolUtils to see what real quality is about . Unlike mpeg4 video converter , CoolUtils movie converter is suitable for processing of dozens of video formats . They include but are not limited to : WMV , DIVX , XVID , VOB , DV , DIF , MOV , MPG , MPEG , MPE , M1V , M2V , MPV , MPEG4 , M4V , MP4 , ASF , [START_ENT] MKV [END_ENT] , 3GP and 3G2 . There are also other reasons why you should choose Total Movie Converter . They are as follows : Affordability . There is no need to spend hundreds of dollars on expensive software . Total Movie Converter is offered by CoolUtils for less than $ 30 . You will also be able to get updates and customer support 24 hours 7 days a week . Functionality . This program is very useful for people who need to not only convert videos , but also to edit them or download movies from such websites as YouTube , Vimeo , and Sevenload . Moreover , Total Movie Converter can be used to convert videos to digital devices like iPhone , iPad , HTC or Zune easily . Finally , this CoolUtils converter is great when it comes to converting video files in batches . Simplicity . Even if you have never before used video converter , you will need only a few minutes to convert XVID to MPEG4

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Answer

Matroska

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Matroska

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The Medical Leader » Eastern KY counties developing multi-county trail system The Medical Leader Home Home > Community News , Uncategorized > Eastern KY counties developing multi-county trail system Eastern KY counties developing multi-county trail system November 18th , 2011 ECO ECONOMY : Eastern Kentucky communities are joining forces to develop a trail system through several counties . Neighboring West Virginia communities are already seeing benefits from development of the Hatfield and McCoy Trail System , which attracts thousands of tourists and generates millions in revenue each year . This photo was taken during the 2011 Trailfest in Gilbert , W.Va . PIKEVILLE -- Counties throughout eastern Kentucky plan to boost the economy by developing and promoting adventure tourism activities . Big Sandy Area Development Director Sandy Runyon , who has worked with local leaders to establish trail systems in eastern [START_ENT] Kentucky [END_ENT] for a number of years , reports that officials in Breathitt , Clay , Knott , Leslie , Bell , Letcher , Perry , Owsley and Harlan counties have worked together for quite some time to develop a trail system that would attract ATV riders , horse enthusiasts , hikers and others into eastern Kentucky . Runyon explained that those counties have entered into an interlocal agreement regarding the trail system , with the understanding that each county is responsible for trail development and maintenance in their counties . Officials in these counties also agree that counties would assist each other with maintenance or other issues on neighboring properties , with the understanding that counties wo n't be billed for that service and with goal of eventually connecting all trails together in one large system . The Pike County Fiscal Court is the first of several Big Sandy area counties to become a part of the initiative by passing a resolution to join the multi-county effort during a Nov. 1 meeting . Although Pike county officials talked about developing a trail system to mimic the successful Hatfield-McCoy ATV Trail system in West Virginia , Runyon believes the interlocal agreement , once it is finalized , will encompass all types of trails and trail-based activities . The first step is for Fiscal Courts in those counties to pass a resolution stating the county 's intent on participating . Thereafter , county attorneys will hash out a finalized interlocal agreement that suits the needs of all counties . The Big Sandy ADD is currently preparing resolutions for other Big Sandy counties . “ I 'm not sure how many counties will sign on , ” Runyon said . “ But we know that Pike , Floyd , Magoffin and Martin counties are interested and we expect that Johnson County will also be interested . Our goal is to have any kind of agreement they enter into to include all trails . ” Once the interlocal agreement between the counties is finalized , Runyon said it is likely that individual counties will be responsible for obtaining land-use permits from residents , which could be a “ huge endeavor ” in counties like Pike County , where officials have identified 200 property owners along one potential trail route . Runyon said the biggest issue in connecting eastern Kentucky trails is the liability that property owners face when they allow the public to come onto their property . There has been some effort at the state level to pass legislation to ease the property liability burden , but the state 's tort law , allowing people to sue for various reasons , may prevent further success of that effort . One bill passed the House last year , but it died without a vote in the Senate . Runyon said the laws enacted by the legislature show progress . “ I do think there is a way around all of this if everybody can work together , and they truly do work together , and try to add all the needs of everybody involved , ” she said . “ I think we can make some progress . ” Areas like Harlan , Bell , Knott Leslie and Knott counties found ways around the liability issues and are able to market trails and host large-scale trail events because a large corporate landowner or private landowners with large , usable tracks of property provided a long-term lease to the county . “ Bell County is the new kid on the block , ” Runyon said . “ There was a company there that leased 7,600 acres to the county . They held an ATV event there three weeks ago that attracted 3,000 riders . So , it 's possible to do this . ” Runyon said the local residents contacted by the Big Sandy ADD have reported that they are excited about the potential . “ The only resistance we see is the unknown , ” she said . “ If every county develops a block of property and show the locals that it will work , that people will come in here to ride these trails and there is economic benefit to that , then I think local landowners will want to get involved . ” She is asking all counties to assess properties that might be available for trail development . The multi-county coalition will make the region more eligible to receive multi-county coal severance tax funds and grant funding for trail development projects , Runyon explained . “ We truly believe here that tourism will be an economic development engine , ” Runyon said . “ It wo n't be the only engine , but it will be a major economic tool for this region . ” Share and Enjoy : Author : admin Categories : Community News , Uncategorized Tags : Comments are closed . 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Output

Answer

Eastern Kentucky Coalfield

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Eastern Kentucky Coalfield

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Expires : -1 Server : Microsoft-IIS/7 .5 X-AspNet-Version : 2.0.50727 p3p : CP = " CAO PSA OUR " X-Powered-By : ASP.NET Date : Fri , 02 Mar 2012 00:40:06 GMT Connection : close Gary Dicker wants to make ‘ beautiful ’ Amex Stadium a horrible place to visit | Give Me Football You are here : Home > Championship > Npower Championship promotion contenders : Brighton HomeLatest NewsPremier League UEFA Champions League Picture Gallery Video GalleryLadbrokesChampionship MORE + ChampionshipLeague OneLeague TwoFA CupPlayer ProfilesLeague CupInternationals Latest NewsFixtures & ResultsTablePicturesInterviewsSpecial FeaturesMatch PreviewsMatch Reviews Select team Premier League Arsenal Aston Villa Blackburn Rovers Bolton Wanderers Chelsea Everton Fulham Liverpool Manchester City Manchester United Newcastle United Norwich City Queens Park Rangers Stoke City Sunderland Swansea City Tottenham Hotspur West Bromwich Albion Wigan Athletic Wolverhampton Wanderers Championship Barnsley Birmingham Blackpool Brighton & Hove Albion Bristol City Burnley Cardiff City Coventry City Crystal Palace Derby County Doncaster Rovers Hull City Ipswich Town Leeds United Leicester City Middlesbrough Millwall Nottingham Forest Peterborough United Portsmouth Reading Southampton Watford West Ham United League One Bournemouth Brentford Bury Carlisle United Charlton Athletic Chesterfield Colchester United Exeter Hartlepool United Huddersfield Town Leyton Orient Milton Keynes Dons Notts County Oldham Athletic Preston North End Rochdale Scunthorpe United Sheffield United Sheffield Wednesday Stevenage Tranmere Rovers Walsall Wycombe Wanderers Yeovil Town League Two AFC Wimbledon Accrington Stanley Aldershot Town Barnet Bradford City Bristol Rovers Burton Albion Cheltenham Town Crawley Town Crewe Alexandra Dagenham & Redbridge Gillingham Hereford United Macclesfield Town Morecambe Northampton Town Oxford Utd Plymouth Argyle Port Vale Rotherham United Shrewsbury Town Southend United Swindon Town Torquay United Share Npower Championship promotion contenders : Brighton Gary Dicker wants to make ‘ beautiful ’ Amex Stadium a horrible place to visit By Paul Bailey August 04 , 2011 Use your < - - > ( arrow ) keys to browse more stories Championship 2011/2012 Check out the latest betting odds Home Live Odds Draw Live Odds Away Live Odds Dicker and Co have to get used to playing in new surroundings . ( © PAphotos ) Picture GalleryNew Championship pictures Brighton & Hove Albion pictures Gary Dicker pictures Gary Dicker If we can make this place hard to play in for other teams , it will be a massive thing for us Player Profiles Gary Dicker Team Pages Brighton & Hove Albion Also see Video Gallery Transfer Directory Manager Spotlight Brighton & Hove Albion have extra reason to be looking forward to the start of the campaign as 2011-12 marks the first year in the club 's impressive new Amex Stadium . Following last season 's exploits that led the Seagulls to the Npower League One title , Gus Poyet 's side go into the Championship full of renewed hope and optimism for what lies ahead.One player not looking to dwell on the niceties that come with the opening of a new home is Gary Dicker , who says the players must adapt quickly to their new surroundings in order to continue pushing in the right direction . " It 's a big pitch , " the 25-year-old confirmed . " We have to get used to playing here when it is full . We need to punish teams when we have the ball . If we can make this place hard to play in for other teams , it will be a massive thing for us . " I 've played at Wembley before , but this pitch feels bigger - it is beautiful to play on . " Brighton could be regarded as having an outside chance for back-to-back promotions , but if one thing is certain it 's that Poyet has got the Seagull 's back playing football the right way . The headline summer signing of Craig Mackail-Smith will undoubtedly add extra firepower to their ranks , but a realistic target of consolidation and a top half finish will ensure the feel-good factor remains at Brighton for another season at least . Scotland international Mackail-Smith , however , will miss the club ’s Carling Cup tie with Gillingham next week because of his latest call-up to the national squad -- much to the annoyance of manager Gus Poyet . The [START_ENT] Brighton [END_ENT] boss said : “ We will always respect players who want to play for their countries so we wo n't stop him from going . Saying that , it 's not very clever when you put an international game in the middle of a week when you have a cup game . " This is Scotland , not Australia or Argentina . I think they knew from two months ago that it was a Carling Cup week and there are a few Scottish players in England . " I am not going to fight the Scottish FA over it . I am going to give him the freedom to go . I loved playing for Uruguay . I will never stop a player playing for their national team . " I am very pleased for Craig and I would , of course , like him to play . It would be very disappointing if he goes to Scotland , misses the Gillingham game and does n't play , so it 's up to the manager . " Championship Winners - 18/1Promoted - 6/1 Fancy a flutter on the big game ? Get behind your side and win some money in the process ! BET

Output

Answer

Brighton & Hove Albion F.C.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Brighton & Hove Albion F.C.

Input

Expires : Thu , 01 Mar 2012 17:17:25 GMT Last-Modified : Thu , 01 Mar 2012 17:17:25 GMT Server : Microsoft-IIS/7 .0 X-Passed-To : S260608AT1VW032 , URL Rewrite on site N/A ( 2012-03-01 12:17:25:134 ) X-Handled-By : S260608AT1VW032 , Rewrite on site N/A X-Actual-URL : S260608AT1VW032 , ( / apps/pbcs . dll/article ? 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Web Searchby YAHOO! | Home Delivery | Print Ads | Mobile | Place Ad Home News Local NewsBusinessStateNationWorldPolitics & ElectionsWeatherPhotosMugshots News Archive TopicsBingo First Friday April 27th Tornadoes Riverfest Gadsden State Community College Black History Month Gadsden City Council Snead State Community College Special SectionsOrder Photo Reprints Living Here Gadsden Style Reader 's Choice Health & Wellness Sports GTPrepsLocal SportsCollegeAuto RacingGolfTickets Sports Photo Galleries GTPreps.com Order Sports Photo Reprints Alabama Football Auburn Football Jimmy Smothers Columns Entertainment EventsMovie TimesPhotosVideoTV GuideTickets TopicsFirst Friday Riverfest Features Entertainment Video Crossword Pets Reader 's Choice Restaurants Living Living NewsRecipesWeddingsTravelCoupons Black History Month Health & Wellness ColumnistsJimmy Smothers Prudence Hilburn Opinion EditorialsColumnistsLetters to the Editor Blogs Obituaries Classifieds For Sale/WantedPetsServicesLegalRentalsAutosPrint Ads Real Estate Jobs Cars HomeGO Comments Share Digg Reddit LinkedIn Mixx Technorati Myspace FARK FURL Email Print WITH PHOTO NO PHOTO Reprints Enlarge Text Tweet Related Links Alabama 's coach Grant put his foot down Releford , Steele set to return for Alabama Alabama coach Anthony Grant says Trever Releford and Andrew Steele could return to the lineup tonight against Florida after being suspended for a game . ( Mark Almond | Associated Press | File ) By JOHN ZENORAssociated Press Published : Monday , February 13 , 2012 at 6:01 a.m. . Last Modified : Monday , February 13 , 2012 at 11:27 p.m. MONTGOMERY -- Alabama ’s suspension-riddled team expects to get some reinforcements for Tuesday ’s game against No. 14 Florida , but leading scorers JaMychal Green and Tony Mitchell wo n’t be among them . Crimson Tide coach Anthony Grant said Monday that guards Trevor Releford and Andrew Steele will “ most likely ” return for a game that could supply a huge boost for the NCAA tournament hopes of a team once flirting with the top 10 -- or a second-straight setback minus key players . “ The main thing right now for our guys to understand is the importance of making good decisions and understanding the consequences when you make poor decisions and then moving on from that and learning from that , ” Grant said . “ So we ’re dealing with that . It ’s disappointing and unfortunate that we have to deal with this in the middle of the season . “ It is what it is , so right now as a team we have to focus on the things we can control , and we have a very challenging game here against a very talented opponent in Florida . We have to get ready to play the game . ” Grant suspended Green , Releford and Steele indefinitely just before Saturday ’s loss at LSU for violating team rules , sending them packing for Tuscaloosa before tipoff.That was also the second game of Mitchell ’s suspension.The disciplinary actions left the Tide ( 16-8 , 5-5 Southeastern Conference ) without players responsible for 69 percent of its scoring , 57 percent of rebounding and 54 percent of assists at a time when the stakes are ratcheted up . Green and [START_ENT] Mitchell [END_ENT] are the team ’s top scorers and rebounders , while Releford leads Alabama in assists and Steele is a key role player . Grant said his decision to hold the players out had much to do with the long-term quality of the program and trying to build “ the values and standards that you want your team to represent . ” He has n’t elaborated on the reasons for the suspensions . Grant declined to say if the violations of Mitchell and Green were more serious , but reiterated that their suspension remained indefinite . “ I do n’t want to get into that , that ’s just the way it is right now , ” he said.This is the third time Grant has suspended Green , a first-team All - SEC player , during his three seasons , including a three-game string early last season and one game at the end of 2009-10 . Grant did n’t rule it out when asked if he had a “ three-strike ” policy that might keep Green from returning . “ I ’ll make some decisions on that later , ” he said . “ Right now my focus is on getting prepared for Florida . ” Alabama had risen to No. 12 in the rankings in December and won three straight before the LSU game.The bold decision on the suspensions was no surprise to Gators coach Billy Donovan , who was Grant ’s boss for a dozen years at Marshall and Florida . “ I know Anthony Grant about as well as anybody , and I think that he has got incredible integrity and character and knows exactly the way he wants his program run and what he ’s going to do , ” Donovan said.The Tide ’s eight remaining players -- half of them freshmen -- managed to come fairly close before losing 67-58 to LSU , with freshman Rodney Cooper scoring 28 points . Alabama had beaten Auburn by 18 points without Mitchell . Now comes a much bigger challenge , even with Releford and Steele.The Gators ( 19-6 , 7-3 ) opened last March with a 78-51 rout of a Tide team that still had aspirations of winning an SEC title and making the NCAA field . Florida is also short-handed , but because of injuries . The Gators wo n’t have their top subs , forward Will Yeguete ( concussion ) and guard Mike Rosario ( bruised hip ) , for the game , Donovan

Output

Answer

Tony Mitchell (basketball, born 1989)

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Tony Mitchell (basketball, born 1989)

Input

Connection : close Server : Nginx / Varnish Last-Modified : Wed , 11 May 2011 16:39:26 GMT ETag : " 20bf53c-15e6-4a302b7435d69 " Accept-Ranges : bytes Content-Length : 5606 Vary : Accept-Encoding Wide Open - Childrens Alligator T-Shirt - Fashion Wide Open - Childrens Alligator T-Shirt Fashion - T-Shirts This children 's t-shirt is titled Wide Open and has a great big alligator sitting there , mouth open - amazing teeth ! A detailed image on a hand dyed t-shirt - the design looks almost photographic . Get discounted sales price for the Fashion item , a Wide Open - Childrens Alligator T-Shirt from Australian Native [START_ENT] T-Shirts [END_ENT] . Browse through Aboriginal Art , Aussie Outback , Australiana , Bear & Buffalo , Big Cats , Bird & Eagle , Cute Kitten , Dog Breed , Dolphin & Whale , Dragons & Wizard , Elephant & Rhino , Fairy & Angel , Fantasy & Celtic , Fishing & Hunting , Frogs & Turtle , Great Apes , Horse , Koala & Kangaroo , Lizard & Crocodile , Moose & Deer , Native American , NZ Maori , Old West , Penguin & Polar , Scenic & Floral , Shark & Marine , Spider & Snake , Steam Train , Wombat & Fox , Wolf & Dingo , Zoo & Farm , Miscellaneous , Children 's and Long Sleeve T-Shirts . They carry a large range of Australian Made T-Shirts with unique Australiana and Native Animal Prints from Planet Earth Designs and Gooses T-Shirts in children 's sizes from 4 to 14 , with adult 's sizes from Small to XXL - XXXL is also available in many designs . If Aboriginal Art is what you 're looking for , just check out the range of Aboriginal

Output

Answer

T-shirt

Provenance

Wikipedia article: T-shirt

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X-Runtime : 1061 Content-Length : 83772 Cache-Control : private , max-age = 0 , must-revalidate Via : 1.0 sbnation.com Vary : Accept-Encoding Connection : close SEC Media Days : SB Nation Roundup Regarding Mark Richt , A.J. Green , and the Georgia Bulldogs - Dawg Sports Navigation : Jump to content areas : Network Bar & Login Section Navigation Main Blog Content Secondary Sidebar : Links to Recent Stories , FanPosts and FanShots Masthead Network Bar SB Nation Pro Quality . Fan Perspective . Log In Screen Name Password Remember Forgot Password ? Sign in with Yahoo! ID Sign in with Facebook Use OpenID OpenID Remember Do n't Have OpenID ? Sign Up Around SBN : Frankie Edgar Guaranteed Automatic Title Shot Dawg Sports - Georgia Bulldogs . Gators eat boogers . Home FanPosts FanShots Archives Bulldogs Schedule Roster Stats Tickets VideoOriginal programming . Exciting sports coverage . Check out the SB Nation YouTube channel ! SEC Media Days : SB Nation Roundup Regarding Mark Richt , AJ Green , and the Georgia Bulldogs by T Kyle King on Jul 22 , 2010 12:01 PM EDT in Football Tweet 3 comments Email Print Mark Richt ’s turn at the microphone at SEC Media Days featured no questions concerning agents , though it is open to debate whether this was due to " a voluntary hiatus , " an " order " ( with consequences for disobedience ) , or " a request on Georgia ’s behalf to hold off on all questions regarding the [START_ENT] NCAA [END_ENT] ’s investigation into AJ Green ’s alleged presence at the agent-sponsored South Beach Party currently erasing half the games played in the 2009 college football season . " ( In the meantime , Dawg Sports has confirmed with a relative of AJ Green ’s that the star receiver was attending a family function in the Palmetto State at the time . ) The summary of Coach Richt ’s remarks authored by Spencer Hall ( whose presence at the event I believe to be confirmed by this photograph , unless I miss my guess as to the identity of the bespectacled plaid-clad fellow with sideburns at the center ) is linked to above , and C&F ; ’s live blog of the event is here . Coach Richt ’s job security came up , though I have no idea why . For his part , AJ did n’t know how big this was . Now , if you ’ll excuse me , I ’m about to go wolf down a Chick-fil-A spicy chicken sandwich , of the sort the hardworking reporters present in the greater metropolitan Birmingham area cruelly were denied yesterday . Go ‘ Dawgs ! Tweet 3 comments | 0 recs | Do you like this story ? More from Dawg Sports SB Nation Launches YouTube Channel Feb 2012 by T Kyle King - 16 comments Thursday Morning Dawg Bites : Suck It Up , You Bunch of Crybabies ! Edition Feb 2012 by T Kyle King - 41 comments Artificial Turf and SEC Expansion : Why It 's Time for the Missouri Tigers to Get Real Feb 2012 by T Kyle King - 67 comments Tuesday Morning Dawg Bites : Bulldog Nation Brought Its Beads to Mardi Gras Edition Feb 2012 by T Kyle King - 4 comments SEC Scheduling in the Expansion Era : How to Preserve Permanent Conference Rivalries and Protect Perennial Non-Conference Rivalries Feb 2012 by T Kyle King - 8 comments Monday Morning Dawg Bites Salutes Greg McGarity and Gives Auburn 's Coaching Move Two Thumbs Up ! Feb 2012 by T Kyle King - 37 comments Around SB Nation 2.11.12 College Hoops Saturday Open Thread Feb 2012 from Anonymous Eagle - 16 comments 2012 NFL Draft : Michael Floyd Expected Surprise At The Combine Feb 2012 from Turf Show Times - 17 comments RPI WATCH : 2/11/12 Feb 2012 from Bring On The Cats - 0 comments RPI WATCH : 2/13/12 Feb 2012 from Bring On The Cats - 3 comments Cincinnati Bengals Should Look To The New Orleans Saints During Free Agency Feb 2012 from Cincy Jungle - 60 comments Read More : mark richt , sec media days , sec , southeastern conference , team speed kills , spencer hall , orson swindle , chick-fil-a , spicy chicken sandwich , sec media days 2010 , A.J. Green ( FL - Georgia ) , Georgia Bulldogs Sign in with your Yahoo ! ID Add Dawg Sports to My Yahoo ! Comments Display : Expanded Collapsed One would think That if Green was in a whole different city , this would be a very brief investigation . by Billy Gomila on Jul 22 , 2010 12:10 PM EDT reply actions While you are enjoying your sandwich ... try to tune in a bit to Vandy ’s Robbie Caldwell . I do n’t know if he can coach a lick , but he ’s fun to listen to . " If we score , we may win . If they never score , we 'll never lose . " - Erk Russell by DavetheDawg on Jul 22 , 2010 12:16 PM EDT reply actions This made me smile . " I have my circle , and I know who to trust and who not to trust , " Green said . " I ’m at the point of my life right now that I do n’t need to make any new friends . I ’ve got to keep that same circle I ’ve had since Day 1 and not let anybody in that . " How refreshing it is to read a statement like this from a college football player who just “ gets it . ” AJ has conducted himself with class from the very beginning at Georgia . We ’ve never heard his name tossed around with any kind of arrest or behavior issue , and he ’s done nothing but make us proud again . His biggest faux-pas so far was his “ celebration ” against LSU last year , and we all know how that went . If every player used this kind of common sense in who they let interact with them during their college career and leading up to the draft , there would be a lot fewer instances like SouthBeachOMGSOFUN-gate going on right now . by hailtogeorgia on Jul 22 , 2010 1:30 PM EDT reply actions Comments For This Post Are Closed ↑ Top of comments ↑ Top of page ↑ Stories ↑ Dawg Sports ↑ SB Nation Secondary Sidebar Search User Tools in association with Welcome to the SB Nation community devoted to the Georgia Bulldogs . Start posting about the Bulldogs Dawg Sports on Facebook Follow @dawgsports Follow Dawg Sports on your Android Device ! Subscribe to Dawg Sports Stories Related FanPosts on Dawg Sports Do not put the cart before the Tiger . by DavetheDawg 4 months ago 17 comments Georgia Bulldogs ' 2012 Football Schedule Officially Revealed in 2011 Media Guide by T Kyle King 8 months ago 8 comments Chupa de cabra : Ten Reasons to be Pessimistic About the Georgia Bulldogs in 2011 . by vineyarddawg 8 months ago 35 comments | 1 recs " We 're Not That Far Away " by Anthony Pace about 1 year ago 26 comments | 1 recs Mailbag Time Again ! : Answering More E-Mails From Auburn Fans by T Kyle King about 1 year ago 19 comments You 're on notice , dawg ! Week 10 by vineyarddawg over 1 year ago 32 comments | 1 recs Related FanShots on Dawg Sports At least at this point in time , a nine-game football schedule has little ... by T Kyle King about 17 hours ago 4 comments Greg McGarity Has Your Back by T Kyle King 2 days ago 0 comments Georgia 's Mark Richt entered 2011 on one of the hottest seats in the ... by T Kyle King about 1 month ago 2 comments A Stray Thought Occurs : by T Kyle King 2 months ago 5 comments 2012 # SEC football conference schedule will be released tomorrow ( Wed . ) at ... by T Kyle King 2 months ago 3 comments It is all but official , based on talking to someone with knowledge of the ... by T Kyle King 2 months ago 24 comments FanPosts Community blog posts and discussion . Recent FanPosts Ole Saban Goes Down to Georgia by Dawg2011 1 day ago 3 comments Lady Dawgs ' 2nd-half outburst too much for Ole Miss

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National Collegiate Athletic Association

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Wikipedia article: National Collegiate Athletic Association

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MAA - Spring 2008 - Donald H. Gilden , '63 On the Heels of MS Donald H. Gilden , ’ 63 , knew the moment he touched the dying man ’s cold hand he wanted to become a doctor . He was just five years old when he made his decision . His grandfather had taken him to visit a friend who was dying of congestive heart failure and was surviving in an oxygen tent . Young Gilden was under strict orders not to disturb the man , but he disobeyed his grandfather slipping his hand under the tent . The old man squeezed the boy ’s fingers and told him stories about his grandfather . “ After that day I never stopped talking about it , ” says Gilden , professor and chairman of the department of neurology and professor of microbiology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine . “ I was going to be a doctor when I grew up . I never wanted to do anything else . ” Gilden , age 70 , has indeed made his mark on the profession . He is recognized as a pioneer in the field of neurovirology for groundbreaking work relating to shingles and multiple sclerosis ( MS ) . After nearly 150 years of medical speculation , Gilden discovered that varicella zoster virus -- the virus that causes shingles -- is latent in human ganglia . More than a million people a year suffer from shingles , and his work helped lead to a shingles vaccination . He has also been working to track down the virus he believes causes MS , a disease that affects about a quarter of a million people in the United States . But this has been far more challenging . Yet Gilden is focused on what he wants to accomplish and understands that it will perhaps take the rest of his life , or even longer , to reach answers . “ You have to be patient , ” he says . “ Science goes little by little . Progress is little by little . ” For his work , Gilden has received an alumni award for distinguished service from the University of Chicago School of Medicine , the International Society for NeuroVirology Pioneer Award , and , in May , he will receive the Medical Alumni Association ’s Honor Award and Gold Key , presented for outstanding medical accomplishments and distinguished service to mankind . A neurologist by training , Gilden sees patients who suffer from migraines , multiple sclerosis , Alzheimer ’s , stroke , and Parkinson ’s . “ I will see anyone , ” he says . “ Clinical neurology has always been one of my first loves . ” But most of his time is spent in the lab conducting research in the microscopic world of DNA , RNA , viruses , and proteins . “ Sometimes in the lab my head is spinning because we have big things going on , ” Gilden says . As a boy growing up in Baltimore , Gilden ’s world revolved around school and working summers in the family business , Sam Gilden & Son , a wholesale store that supplied hair tonic , razor blades , bobby pins , toothpaste , and other items to local drug stores . He unloaded trucks , packed orders , swept floors , and , when he was old enough , made deliveries in a bright red Dodge delivery truck His father saw him taking over the business one day , a task which demanded hard work and long hours . “ We never had dinner with my father , ” Gilden recalls . “ The wholesale business was a tough business . ” Gilden ’s real “ job ” was to go to school , and he excelled in biology , chemistry , and math . Classes in foreign language , however , barely held his interest . “ For me the language of medicine was all I ever cared about , ” he says . He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1959 , and moved back home to go to medical school . Gilden interned at the University of Illinois Hospital in Chicago , and did his residency in neurology at the University of Chicago Hospitals . It was in the late 1960s while he was a staff neurologist in the [START_ENT] US Army [END_ENT] at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington , DC , that he became interested in research . After seeing patients during the day , he had time to catch his breath in the evening and mull over the amazing research underway . Researchers had discovered that measles virus in the brain could cause chronic encephalitis , and that Jakob-Creutzfeld disease -- a “ degenerative ” brain disorder in humans -- was infectious . “ I said to my wife , ‘ I think I want to do a fellowship in infectious diseases , ’” recalls Gilden , who was 32 at the time . “ She looked at me like she married a crazy man . ” He was accepted at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health as a postdoctoral National Institutes of Health fellow . After about three years , he joined the faculty at University of Pennsylvania and set up a lab at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia to find the virus that causes MS . He worked closely with MS patients who lived in a chronic care facility and were ravaged by the disease . Gilden asked if they would donate their brains after death to his research because he was looking for the cause of MS . Sometimes his phone rang in the middle of the night and within an hour Gilden was harvesting brain from their skulls . “ I had my own saw , ” he says . He studied 24 brains over eight years , but never found the MS virus . So , he turned his attention to varicella zoster virus , which causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults . Nobody had ever isolated the virus , and if he could prove it was there he believed he could use the same technique to find the MS virus . He tore into his work mapping the viral genome in human ganglia along the entire nervous system . In 1983 , he proved for the first time that the virus was latent in ganglia and “ reawakens ” causing shingles . The shingles virus causes pain and even stroke if it makes its way to the brain . Gilden found several other diseases caused by the virus , such as zoster sine herpete , or shingles without the rash . His discoveries led to more work for his team . Gilden left the University of Pennsylvania in 1985 to become professor and chairman of the department of neurology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine and professor of microbiology . At the University of Colorado , 15 members of Gilden ’s team are working on varicella zoster virus and MS . They harvest ganglia collected from an autopsy room . “ We go there every day , ” Gilden says . “ If it is a good case we will go as far as we have to . We even get specimens from Japan . ” MS has been a hard case to crack , but Gilden seems to be making progress . The common theory is that MS is autoimmune . The body ’s immune response attacks a protein that is normally in the brain . The attack is so violent and persistent that the brain is destroyed in the process . “ We do n’t think that is the case at all , ” Gilden says . “ Even now we have evidence that it is not autoimmune . ” He argues that in people with MS who have increased amounts of an antibody called immunoglobulin G ( IgG ) , in their brain and spinal fluid , the IgG is directed against an infectious agent , but nobody is quite sure at what agent it is directed . He and his team are looking for footprints of virus in MS . “ We are writing a paper showing that the immune response in MS is not against a self ( auto ) protein , ” he says . While he is busy with his research , Gilden , who is married and has three adult sons , skis and plays the violin -- a 1779 Guadagnini . He is also quick to tell a joke . Gilden would like to find out what causes MS and how to prevent varicella zoster virus from reactivating . He is unfazed by the fact that his research into MS

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United States Army

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Wikipedia article: United States Army

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Free software

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Wikipedia article: Free software

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The Medical Leader » Eastern KY counties developing multi-county trail system The Medical Leader Home Home > Community News , Uncategorized > Eastern KY counties developing multi-county trail system Eastern KY counties developing multi-county trail system November 18th , 2011 ECO ECONOMY : Eastern Kentucky communities are joining forces to develop a trail system through several counties . Neighboring West Virginia communities are already seeing benefits from development of the Hatfield and McCoy Trail System , which attracts thousands of tourists and generates millions in revenue each year . This photo was taken during the 2011 Trailfest in Gilbert , W.Va . PIKEVILLE -- Counties throughout eastern Kentucky plan to boost the economy by developing and promoting adventure tourism activities . Big Sandy Area Development Director Sandy Runyon , who has worked with local leaders to establish trail systems in eastern Kentucky for a number of years , reports that officials in Breathitt , Clay , Knott , Leslie , Bell , Letcher , Perry , Owsley and Harlan counties have worked together for quite some time to develop a trail system that would attract ATV riders , horse enthusiasts , hikers and others into eastern Kentucky . Runyon explained that those counties have entered into an interlocal agreement regarding the trail system , with the understanding that each county is responsible for trail development and maintenance in their counties . Officials in these counties also agree that counties would assist each other with maintenance or other issues on neighboring properties , with the understanding that counties wo n't be billed for that service and with goal of eventually connecting all trails together in one large system . The Pike County Fiscal Court is the first of several Big Sandy area counties to become a part of the initiative by passing a resolution to join the multi-county effort during a Nov. 1 meeting . Although Pike county officials talked about developing a trail system to mimic the successful Hatfield-McCoy ATV Trail system in West Virginia , Runyon believes the interlocal agreement , once it is finalized , will encompass all types of trails and trail-based activities . The first step is for Fiscal Courts in those counties to pass a resolution stating the county 's intent on participating . Thereafter , county attorneys will hash out a finalized interlocal agreement that suits the needs of all counties . The Big Sandy ADD is currently preparing resolutions for other [START_ENT] Big Sandy [END_ENT] counties . “ I 'm not sure how many counties will sign on , ” Runyon said . “ But we know that Pike , Floyd , Magoffin and Martin counties are interested and we expect that Johnson County will also be interested . Our goal is to have any kind of agreement they enter into to include all trails . ” Once the interlocal agreement between the counties is finalized , Runyon said it is likely that individual counties will be responsible for obtaining land-use permits from residents , which could be a “ huge endeavor ” in counties like Pike County , where officials have identified 200 property owners along one potential trail route . Runyon said the biggest issue in connecting eastern Kentucky trails is the liability that property owners face when they allow the public to come onto their property . There has been some effort at the state level to pass legislation to ease the property liability burden , but the state 's tort law , allowing people to sue for various reasons , may prevent further success of that effort . One bill passed the House last year , but it died without a vote in the Senate . Runyon said the laws enacted by the legislature show progress . “ I do think there is a way around all of this if everybody can work together , and they truly do work together , and try to add all the needs of everybody involved , ” she said . “ I think we can make some progress . ” Areas like Harlan , Bell , Knott Leslie and Knott counties found ways around the liability issues and are able to market trails and host large-scale trail events because a large corporate landowner or private landowners with large , usable tracks of property provided a long-term lease to the county . “ Bell County is the new kid on the block , ” Runyon said . “ There was a company there that leased 7,600 acres to the county . They held an ATV event there three weeks ago that attracted 3,000 riders . So , it 's possible to do this . ” Runyon said the local residents contacted by the Big Sandy ADD have reported that they are excited about the potential . “ The only resistance we see is the unknown , ” she said . “ If every county develops a block of property and show the locals that it will work , that people will come in here to ride these trails and there is economic benefit to that , then I think local landowners will want to get involved . ” She is asking all counties to assess properties that might be available for trail development . The multi-county coalition will make the region more eligible to receive multi-county coal severance tax funds and grant funding for trail development projects , Runyon explained . “ We truly believe here that tourism will be an economic development engine , ” Runyon said . “ It wo n't be the only engine , but it will be a major economic tool for this region . ” Share and Enjoy : Author : admin Categories : Community News , Uncategorized Tags : Comments are closed . 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Big Sandy River (Ohio River tributary)

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Wikipedia article: Big Sandy River (Ohio River tributary)

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Astrology on the Web : Eclipse Effect AstrologyCom.com Tweet Astro ShopGlossaryAstrology App AstrologyAstrology BlogStar GuideHoroscopesLove HoroscopeTarotscopesCompatibility aries taurus gemini cancer leo virgo libra scorpio sagittarius capricorn aquarius pisces Click to Find It Quick ! 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For many years Marjorie , who describes herself as " a Celtic Virgo -- an odd mix of mystic and hugely practical " , has been a media astrologer writing columns for newspapers and magazines in five continents , and broadcasting on television and radio , and is the author of The Astrological History of the World , which is reviewed on this site ( Click Here for Review ) . She also has her own website www.star4cast.com . The Passion Killer Australia 's Eclipse Eclipses The Astrological History of the World Saturn vs Pluto Uranus vs Algol Astrology Home Horoscopes Star Guide Relationships Relationship Analysis Soul Connection About Astrology Orders More Info Astrology and Health Runes The Zodiac About Us The Eclipse EffectBreak Down or Break Through December 4th , 2002 : Total Solar Eclipse in Sagittarius Turning a crisis into an opportunity is the modern way of looking at the eclipse effect . Do n't get stuck , get a grip . If you bury your head in the sand , then circumstances will force you to make long overdue changes . Better by far to stay ahead of the game , and volunteer for the inevitable . That way you have a better chance of staying in control of events and directing your future path . Solar eclipses happen every six months , in different cycles which recur every 18.5 years ( the Saros Cycle ) . The sign and cycle in which the eclipse occurs will tell you which area of your activities is shouting for a shakeup . In the rundown below read your Sun sign and your Ascendant sign . [ If you do n't know your ascendant , go to www.star4cast.com FREE Birth Charts and it will calculate it for you . ] Take time to work out what happened to you personally 18.5 years ago , or 37 . The two major domestic/country moves in my life took place exactly that distance apart in the years of eclipses in the same cycle . And I only worked that one out after the decision was taken . This approaching December solar eclipse in Sagittarius will obviously have more effect on Sagittarian Sun or Ascendant types , who are at a real turning point in their lives . Geminis are looking closely at relationships . The other mutable signs , Virgo and Pisces are focusing on home and work matters . Taurus and Scorpio are money-minded ; Capricorn and Cancer have work and health dilemmas ; Leo and Aquarius are trying to balance love and friendships ; Aries and Libra are grappling with nitty gritty communication and organisational matters . More details below . This eclipse cycle wo n't recur until 2020 , so this is your chance to take the initiative , ask yourself fundamental questions about what you really want to do with this area of your life , and then make the radical decisions necessary . The few days before and after an eclipse are usually fraught , highly strung , rather nervy , with few ( except astrology followers ) understanding why everyone is so on edge . The eclipse effect carries a major theme for the following six months and will be felt for a few weeks in advance , so there 's no sense in delaying until December 4th . Get your thinking cap on . In primitive days , the ancients ' view of eclipses was that the darkening of the Sun was a portent of doom , putting them at the mercy of the fates . But these were highly superstitious people , with no sense of control of their lives . Eclipses can provoke crises , bringing unwanted upheavals , but nowadays you can chose your attitude and your strategy . Some world leaders have lives which seem eerily to follow eclipses : Nelson Mandela was imprisoned , released and became President on the exact week of eclipses . [START_ENT] Saddam Hussein [END_ENT] launched and then lost the Gulf War on an extraordinary series of eclipse driven events . He gathered his troops on the borders of Kuwait on the lunar eclipse in late July 1990 , two weeks before the solar eclipse on which date the UN mandate to oppose him was agreed . In the following January on the next Solar eclipse , the Gulf War was launched . Princess Diana died one day before a solar eclipse conjunct the potent , furiously angry Mars Pluto conjunction in Virgo in her chart.The previous eclipse in the same series 18.5 years before fell within days of the assassination of the Earl of Mountbatten , Prince Charles ' uncle . John F. Kennedy Jnr was killed in a plane crash days before the major 1999 solar eclipse , which was the same cycle as oversaw the death of his stillborn baby brother and indeed the assassination of his father , two cycles before . For those of us not caught up in world events , the effects are likely to be much less dramatic or tragic , but they are significant if you really want to grow and develop as a human being . This December Solar Eclipse is in a tricky Saros Cycle , usually accompanying a mood of high frustration , intense emotional reactions and a sense of being stuck with circumstances or relationship matters , seemingly beyond personal control . To add to the general feeling of angst , power-hungry Pluto is close to the eclipse , and the dreary Saturn opposition comes a few days later , though admittedly optimistic Jupiter in Leo is trying to add a dash of good luck as well from a trine . Bernadette Brady in The Eagle and the Lark remarks that rash action is inadvisable . GW Bush might do well to pay heed . For most of us these are tough times , with anchors dragging , and generally a sense that life is quite a struggle . Roll on the end of the Saturn Pluto opposition mid 2003 , and bring on the joyous eclipses of next year . So it 's grit your teeth and make the best of it for now . Here 's how : Sun and Ascendant Sign : SAGITTARIUS : An eclipse in your own sign says you are at a crossroads and must chose your path for the next few years . Decisions need to be pondered because there will be no backtracking . Make up your mind , get committed and then get moving . If you look the other way and ignore the eclipse effect , then a crisis in the next few months will force you to see where you have been over compromising . Be independent , do n't rely on others for advice , let alone be diverted onto your partner 's agenda . It ai n't easy , but you do have choices . GEMINI : Close emotional and work partnerships and your whole attitude to sharing , caring and relating are under the microscope . You must move into a more co-operative frame of mind , tolerant , flexible and willing to compromise . As an independent , restless air sign , none of this comes naturally . Old relationships may be under strain and on the point of parting company . Do they really suit your needs ? Only you know the answer . Strong bonds will weather the storms . New relationships will come as you clear the decks of psychological debris from the past . VIRGO : At an outer level , ensuring you have a solid , secure home and domestic base where you can put down roots is your cri de Coeur . At an inner level you are moving away from old ways of relating and refusing to be trapped by family members or loved ones who want you to stay exactly where and as you are . Pushed and pulled by opposing demands from heavy work responsibilities and emotional pressures , you need to put your own needs first . When your dilemma threatens to get on top of you , go dig the garden , walk in nature , or have a Californian massage . Getting in touch with earth energy will help . PISCES : Is a career crisis looming ? Maybe it 's a hint from the universe that you are heading in the wrong direction and trying to fit your talents into the wrong box . You know you want to make your mark on the world , and have your achievements recognised , but you have to be fulfilling what truly feels like a vocation for that to happen . With Pluto around , you will also be questioning your attitude to power figures and who holds the control . Maybe you ca n't be the megalomaniac you 'd like , but you need to ensure that no one else is pulling your strings at work either . Push family responsibilities into their proper place and focus on your ambitions . TAURUS : Two things are dear to your heart -- one is money and the other is power ( OK and sex is in there somewhere as well ) . Your sense of security may be shaken because circumstances seemingly outside your control seem to be posing a threat to your power and prosperity base . This solar eclipse falling in the deepest , most hidden area of your chart suggests you need to get right down to rock bottom to find fundamental answers to your present sticky situation . As a fixed sign you expect the world and other people to adapt to you , rather than the other way round . This eclipse says you need to share , care , co-operate and relate in a profoundly different way in future if you are to improve joint finances and spark up your sex life in the months to come -- and avoid a crisis . Hanging on for too much control , could backfire . Trust the universe and go with the flow . SCORPIO : Money is on your mind , not joint finances as with Taurus , but your own personal piggy-bank . In the face of ungenerous influences , you know you need to take a major initiative to shake up your finances to bring prosperity in the coming months . Luckily your formidable stamina will stand you in good stead , and Jupiter also helps at your mid-heaven , bringing a hint of career success . But you ca n't afford to dither around , praying for a lottery win or a long-lost relative to leave you a fortune . Get real , get thinking , and then get working . CAPRICORN : A hidden eclipse in the sign before yours sparks up psychological tensions , uncomfortable echoes of unresolved issues from the past and a general feeling of stuck-ness . If you can see the awkward events happening around you as useful pointers , reflections of what is going on at an inner level , then you can make real use of this eclipse . Not naturally an inward-looking sign , you may need to force yourself to ask the probing questions that will bring profound answers . Do n't be put off by imagining you will find all manner of horrors . On the contrary you will find you are a richer , stronger personality than you could have imagined . Your unlived emotions tend to put extra strain on your body , so be good to yourself physically by reaching for a deeper self-understanding . CANCER : Sagittarius is your area for work and health . You will be facing a dilemma about how to regenerate your career , improve your working conditions and build up your general health . The likelihood with Pluto in place is that you will be meeting resistance in your efforts , but do n't let that put you off . Pluto can produce solidly substantial results , but it usually takes a struggle and strong determination . Do n't meet unco-operative workmates head on in a stalemate battle . Duck and dive a little . Aim for influence , not outright control . Realise also you have to let go certain old ambitions which have lost their fire . Physically you need to pay better attention to your body 's needs , get even minor ailments fixed , and then you will sail ahead in robust form . LEO : Love may be on your mind , but it may not be what you are attracting . This eclipse will make you aware of where you are not getting the affection , admiration and adoration you want from loved ones , children or even social mates . Tricky , I know , to be exuberant and utterly seductive with the wet-blanket Saturn-Pluto around . But this is your challenge . You need to allow your personality to shine brightly , to step out without apology or doubt , to be where you feel fulfilled which is centre stage . Two thoughts : one is that what you lack , you must first give . Have you been too meagre in handing out kisses , cuddles and compliments ? Go to it . The second is that Pluto tends to make you clutch if you feel you are not getting attention . Let go . If you cage loved ones in , they will struggle to break free . AQUARIUS : Always known as the humanitarian sign , this could be your chance to make a real difference to the society or world in which you live . Certainly you know you need to widen your circle of friends and acquaintances in the months , if not years to come , but do n't keep stick to a frivolous , exclusively social agenda . You could join hands with influential movers and shakers to have a powerful influence on what is going on around you . You also know you need to nudge yourself into setting long term goals . Do n't just think five year plan , think 20 year plan . It does n't have to be set in concrete , you can adapt as you go along , but you will be better with a broad strategy and well defined goals . ARIES : Travel , communication , improving your mind -- all of these are sparked off by this eclipse , which is generally prompting you to broaden your horizons in whichever you can . Set your sights higher . Let your imagination soar . Think big , do n't get bogged down in trivia . Saturn Pluto is hardly an exciting or inspirational overlay , but nonetheless this is your challenge . You need to spread your ideas to a wider audience , find more intellectual stimulation and see where you can get yourself out of a rut . LIBRA : Sorting out your everyday schedule may not sound like a bundle of fun , but if you do n't get a grip of minutiae , details and organization , then your life will lack a solid , realistic base . Think about how you communicate . Are you being misunderstood at work ? Collect your thoughts first , speak simply and then double check to make sure your message got across . It may not be the content that 's at fault , more the delivery.Start each day with a checklist and you wo n't race round in circles getting in a muddle . Think small for a few months , then you will fly the higher come next May . Marjorie 's new book The Astrological History of the World ( Sterling Publications ; ISBN

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Saddam Hussein

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Wikipedia article: Saddam Hussein

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Peru, Illinois

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Wikipedia article: Peru, Illinois

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Minnesota Wild

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Wikipedia article: Minnesota Wild

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Blue 's News MailBag Mailbag May 2,1999 -- Previous Mailbag Letters are edited for spelling errors only , and may contain profanity . Commentary by Jason " loonyboi " Bergman . Hey id ... you suck ! From : James Fitzgerald Subject : Suggestion So here 's the deal . You rag on Unreal 's no show as far as a release goes , and less than 12 hours later , they put out a release . Any chance you could rag on id about Q3Test for the windows platform ? :-) - JamesF . Do n't say we did n't try ... Just chill , homies . From : Rob Ellner Subject : Q3 Q3 on the Mac first , eh ? Heh . I 'm a PC owner looking forward to Q3 as much as the next obsessive gaming nut . But it is kinda funny ai n't it . I nearly coughed up a lung when everyone started trying to download the Mac emulator . That is pure comedy . Nothing less . People should chill out about this mac first deal . How can any PC owner claim foul when the last game to come out on the Mac first was Marathon . And welcome to it they were . Did n't see the PC population crying over that . HackMesser I laughed my head off as well ... I own ARDI , and I found it very hard to believe that software that emulates a 25 MHz 68040 could actually run software designed for a G3 . It does , however run Marathon really well . :) Deep thoughts . From : sikander iqbal Subject : Q3A and Bill Gates Okay , if Bill Gates had a son who loved QUAKE as much as I do , would he let him go out and buy a MAC just for playing the Q3Test ?? The secret 's out ! From : Michiel Rutting Subject : You sold out to Mac ! We have proof now ! Hi , Did you notice this in Graeme 's . plan too ? Hard proof has arrived ! -- Start Quote When running in 32-bit color depth , lighting effects ( such as from a weapon firing ) cause the affected textures to temporarily turn to garbage . ( System : Blue tower G3 ) -- End Quote No use denying it now , you sold out :) And now your Mac gives you errors ! LOL ! Heh , this one is too good . Greetz , Nucleus aka Michiel Rutting Actually , that 's somewhat inaccurate . The " Blue " tower , is actually " bondi blue " . On the happy occasion ... From : Randy Taylor Subject : Congratulations ! Hi Blue ! Congratulations on your wedding anniversary . I was shocked that you hav n't taken a day off in three years . I just wanted to tell you how much I appreciate your page . I have hit it almost every day for two years now . I have one word of advice ; try to take at least one day off a week . I am in the military and take 30 days off a year . I think I would go crazy if I did n't have that time . Thanks for keeping up one of the best gaming sights on the net , and do n't forget to take care of yourself ! - Randy Taylor B-1B Crew Chief USAF Carmack does what ? From : John Nevaquaya Subject : re : Whose bitch ? Well , I guess if we had to be someone 's bitch , it would have to be Carmack 's instead of Romero 's - at least Carmack puts out . Andrew Smith strikes again ... From : Mr. Fix It Subject : Andrew Smith can suck my boomstick As you may have already guessed , this E-mail is a response to the pile of bull shit Andrew Smith sent in last week . Andrew Smith is a complete idiot !! Hey Andrew , if you have to put " I have no evidence to prove this , but it 's true , and anyone who denies it is wrong . " after everything you say , then what your saying is most likely false or an opinion . Keep your god damned misinformation to your dumbfuck self ! For the record : 1 . I play violent computer games , which I know for a _ FACT _ have not made me violent . 2 . I watch violent films , which I know for a _ FACT _ have not made me violent . 3 . I have access to information about making bombs , which I know for a _ FACT _ has not made me want to blow things up . I already wanted to blow things up before I had access to that crap . 4 . I am in high school where I have not killed any of my classmates because I play violent video games and watch violent movies . ( or for any other reason , for that mater . ) Some people may think that these _ FACTS _ make me biased . Perhaps I am , but that does n't make that Andrew Smith any smarter . People like him make me want to kill someone :-) . But seriously , they drive me insane ! Those irritating right-wing religious crackpots , moronic Republicans , and other idiots are always pushing shit like this at us . If you are a member of one of the aforementioned groups and you disagree with me , suck my boomstick !!!! I 'm sick and tired of flipping on the ol' boob toob and hearing video games , TV , and movies getting blamed for things like the tradgedy in Littleton . Jesus Christ people !!! I know this has been said before , but it was an excellent point : THE MEDIA IS NOT HERE TO BABYSIT THE YOUTH OF AMERICA !!!!!!!!! If you look at all of these absolutely horrible tradgedies , you will most likely see that the parents of killers either raised there kids in a terrible environment or they were hardly ever around . How the hell does a kid make multiple bombs without his parents noticing ? His parents not paying any attention to anything he does , that 's how !!! Parents are here to police their kids before they are able to police themselves . They sure make sure that their son or daughter understands that violence hurts and that what happens in most movies and video games is n't real . More and more of these tragedies will occur until the parents of America start doing their job : to raise there children up sane and with a healthy sense of reality . Man stuff like this pisses me off . Well , back to my homework ... - Mr. Fix It PS Feel free to edit the swearing in my letter . I really want my feelings on this heard . Thanks . From : Troy > < > Fisher Subject : Re : Andrew Smith : school shootings Your unsubstantiated comments provide a very good point . However , the substantiation that games do not cause violence comes from doing some homework on the following : How many copies of first-person shooters have been sold , starting with Wolf3D and going all the way up to Starseige or whatever is the latest . Now figure out how many of the owners of these copies went on to shoot kids in their school ( or elsewhere ) . I think you 'll find a large discrepancy if you can even come up with the numbers . QED More on Mac emulation ... From : Burt H. Subject : Q3Test and Mac Emulation Regarding and quoting from BluesNews ... An incorrect rumor on the net listed Executor as running Q3Test , the test-version of Quake 3 that was made available for the Macintosh before Linux and Windows . Our site has been swamped as people try to download our demo to test this . Q3Test requires a PowerPC , and Executor does not currently run any Mac applications that require a PowerPC . I have to say , I 'm not better than the next guy on this planet , but there are a few things I see , most of the time , from a more distant perspective . I 'm certainly not going to do Carmack and injustice and compare him to Mr. Gate $ , but have you noticed something amazing ? Bill Gates has people flocking to OS 's , Apps , and many other things , normally because it 's ' easier ' , or someone does n't know they have a choice . John Carmack on the other hand is so powerful that he can cause half of the internet community ( those that that do n't have MacOS ) to flock to something they typically badmouth , just to try out his software. :) You go boy !! * grin * LugNut PS I think he should do donuts on Gate 's lawn with that Sports car ; > ) They 're all gon na laugh at you ! From : dino bigliazzi Subject : Prey ? <hee hee> Is it just me , or does anyone else out there giggle uncontrollably everytime they hear Prey mentioned . Let 's try it ... " Prey " <hee hee> Comments , abusive email , movie deals , etc. are welcome . jazz.bone@mailcity.com I got yer legislation right here ... From : Jason Rushton Subject : Major Minor Legislation Non-Gamers just do n't understand games . Especially , I have to say , older people ( ie congressmen , reporters ) . So they think by not letting people under 18 buy games they 'll solve the worlds problems . But what about demos ? What about the ever-present warez copies ? What about the store clerks that do n't give a damn ? Is it going to be like buying cigarettes , or alcohol ? If you under 26 you have to have an id , ca n't sell it within 1000 yards of a school or church ? If a parent buys it for thier kid ... is that contributing to the delinquency of a minor ? Maybe a better idea would be to not let anyone under 18 watch the news ! I 've been a game since the [START_ENT] DOOM [END_ENT] days ... and the images that show up on the news everyday still make me sick , shock me , and otherwise " gross me out " . People just do n't understand ... I think it was a quote on Blue 's , or Loony 's , but it said something to the effect of most gamers are too afraid to even go outside let alone open fire on a crowd of people . And that B.S. about them losing touch with reality ... did n't know they were n't playing a game . Every game out there has a teamplay mode where you are n't supposed to kill teammates ... are n't all humans essentially teammates at the very least . Well , that 's enough of my late night ranting ... if it sounds weird that 's cuz it 's 5 in the morning ... But I 'm sick and tired of people blaming everyone else for everything they do wrong . No one will accept the blame anymore . If they really have to blame someone else for what kids are doing wrong then blame the parents , blame the education system , blame the pressures of society ... just leave us gamers to our vegetating . Jason " FoOeY " Rushton You make a good point ... most hard-core gamers are serious agoraphobiacs . The concept of sunlight scares them more than anything . :) Still more on the Colorado incident ... From : James Hendrick Subject : The Doomworld editorial Dear Mailbag , I 'm not going to spend much in time or length at this , because nobody ever reads the long letters , and besides Frasier comes on in twenty minutes . But I 've got to say something , to make some opposition , because the integrity of the gaming community is being defended by a prominent editorial that would better have served us had it never been written at all . The editorial , by Dukrous of Doomworld.com , was made reference to by an article on CNN , as reported on Blue 's today ( the 28th ) . Suffice it to say that this editorial has not gone unnoticed . I was personally very curious to see what Doomworld had to say about the Columbine shootings , since the Doom community is under very close scrutiny right now for reasons that do n't need to be reviewed . So I read this editorial and was severely disappointed . Instead of an intelligent , mature , receptive response , the author has published a quasi-intellectual treatise that attempts to guild youthful conviction and self-importance in what was probably intended to be an impressive display of philosophical rigor and noble uprightness . It fails . Debunking his reasoning is busy work , labor not worth its me . What disappoints me so greatly in this editorial are not its oversights , gross generalizations , leaps of logic , and innumerable contradictions , but its outright ignorance : the absence of consideration in the author 's commanding tone , the sense of smug triumph that he conveys with every ludicrous conclusion . He would be at fault for this regardless of the merit of his ideas . And he is definitely to be faulted for making the horror at Columbine into a platform on which to parade his intellect and character . " Peace can not be kept by force . It can only be achieved by understanding . " What is needed is not increased regulation , vigilance , and inquisition . These are short-sighted answers . What we are lacking is understanding . Sincerely , James Hendrick also an avid gamer , aka Mr. White and Mr. Wizard From : Robert J. Denchy Subject : Shootings and " experts " with no clue Blue / Loonyboi , I happened to turn on the TV last night and catch a part of an interview last night . I think it was on 20/20 . I only watched about two minutes of it before I turned off the TV . They had some military " expert " talking about the shooting of the kids as they were coming out of a bible study . ( Not the most recent shooting . ) He was explaining how it was obvious that the games the kid played gave him the skills to kill his classmates . This expert obviously looked for ways to prove his points rather than looking at the situation objectively . Otherwise , he would have seen that his points actually prove the game did NOT provide the " skills " used . His Point : It was amazing that the kid scored 5 out of 8 shots . This shows an incredible aptitude above that of experts that are trained to shoot . For example , in a recent shooting , four trained policemen were in a shoot-out and only 19 of 43 shots were good . Although there were multiple people in the classroom it was a large room . My Point : Apples and Oranges . It 's too bad that most people will take this at face value . Shooting at unarmed people that are not hiding under behind cover is a completely different situation than when someone is shooting back at you . Shooting at one or two people is not the same as shooting at 40 people . I do n't care how big the room was , the kids were grouped together in a contained area . And shooting at one person still meant that others were likely to be hit if the shot missed the intended target . The expert may argue this but then he is probably the type of fool that would try to take out an armed terrorist surrounded by 30 hostages . In the real world the good guys wo n't shoot because the chance of hitting someone other than the person they are aiming at is too high . His Point : He shot once at each target which is the way the games teach people to shoot . Shoot one target and quickly move on to the next . This goes against what a trained person would do ; trained people shoot until the target goes down . My Point : The kid was not trained ! He did exactly what makes sense for someone attempting to create as much damage to as many people as possible . He did n't care if he killed his target or not . People that are trained are trained to take out their target who is a danger to them . These " targets " were NOT a threat . Finally , one of the most common death match rules is to STAY ON TARGET . Why ? Because , your targets are threats to you . If you divide your fire between multiple targets you are likely to kill none of them . This in turn means there is more fire being directed at you . Further more , for all we know , he WAS shooting at the same target . He could have missed with ever shot and only managed to hit the people around his intended target ( s ) . His Point : He shot at the head because the games award head shots . My Point : Gee , which game is that ? Some games award more points or more damage for head shots but not games like Doom , Quake , Quake II , etc. . In fact , it is only the most recent crop of games that award points for head shots . In general , the games actually teach the same thing that a defense course would teach , shoot at the point where you are most likely to hit ... center of mass . Anyway , the point is that this " expert " is nothing of the sort . He has made poor arguments that , when looked at logically , actually prove that the games did not train this kid ... He has made assumption and taken them as facts and then tried to make the circumstances match those " facts " . This kid acted contrary to the best tactics for FPS games . This kid did what makes sense for someone who is looking to harm as many people as possible . As a side note , the government and people with no clue are once again trying to use these shootings as a way to increase gun control . Why do we need more gun control when the current laws are not being enforced . After all , it is illegal for a minor ( under 18 ) to purchase a weapon . It is illegal for anyone under 21 to purchase a handgun . It is illegal to have guns on school property ( Believe the law states something like guns are not allowed within 500 yards of a school ) . - Palandar . rjdenchy@flash.net From : Alex Brown Subject : Jocks vs Geeks ? Dear Blue 's News , I know that a lot of folks who write in to you are termed " geeks " and they all seem to express a deep resentment of their more " popular " peers . I want to let everyone know that there are other shades of grey . In high school I was a Jock . However I wasnt the greatest one in the world . Guess what else I did ? Surf the Internet , play games like Doom , and yes , I did well in school . So what we have here is someone - mainly myself , who was a geek and a jock hybrid . I was more popular than people who were just normal kids who didnt belong to clubs , yet I was not as popular as some of the more exceptional athletes and their click . I am aghast to see that there are so many people who are on the far ends of the spectrum . Is that the reality ? Or is that the only group who is being allowed to have their voices heard because of the resentment of the " popular " in the computer community ? Is there no middle ground ? Are any of these opposing sides taking steps to understand each other ? I believe that there needs to be more effort between people to understand each other . It seems like we have a social " race war " going on , and just like society needed/needs to come to terms with ethnic and race differences , we need to come to terms with social ones . I agree completely with you , but there 's a problem here ... you and I are both out of high school . When I was in high school ( shudder ) I thought of things in those same strange terms ... there were " jocks " and " geeks " and well , then there was me . :) My point is this : we can talk rationally about this now because it 's behind us . But for kids who are still in high school , it 's a different story entirely . And it 's not something easily solved , either . Now here 's some logic I agree with ... From : Jim Beasley Subject : Whats really behind the Littleton Tragedy ... I 'm sick of hearing that computer games were somehow responsible for the terrible tragedy in Littleton

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Doom

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Wikipedia article: Doom

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welfare jobs in United Kingdom | careerjet.co.uk Job seeker free services : : : Create job alerts | Post your CV Sign up / Log in what : where : Advanced search Jobs by location Advertisers Partners Job Seekers Locations United Kingdom England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales Contract type Any Part-time Full-time Permanent Contract Temporary Training Voluntary Suggestions welfare to work Recent searches welfare , United Kingdom political , United Kingdom simulation , United Kingdom excel , United Kingdom instructor , United Kingdom 13598 welfare jobs in United Kingdom Job search > United Kingdom jobs > welfare jobs Email Key Family Mentor - Welfare to Work SPECIALIST RECRUITMENT PARTNERS LTD - Plymouth Key Family Mentor - Welfare to Work . A leading employability provider who have been helping people gain new skills and get off benefits ... for over 3 decades are currently recruiting . Working within the Welfare to Work sector my client have excelled and expanded and are now a market ... Contract Manager - Welfare to Work Hampshire This is an excellent opportunity for someone who has previous experience managing welfare to work contracts , with responsibility for staff ... Welfare Money Advice Officer Ipswich , Suffolk Excellent opportunity within local [START_ENT] Housing Trust [END_ENT] for an experienced Money Advice Officer who can provide Welfare rights and Financial ... salary of between # 18-22 ,000 per annum + company benefits . Whilst they are looking for relevant Welfare and financial advice experience ... Welfare/Teaching Assistant West London A primary school in West London are looking to recruit a Welfare Assistant for a varied role . The role is to work within a satellite school ... on a full time basis , your varied role will include welfare , first aid , administrative and teaching assistant duties . The role is on a full time ... Welfare Money Advice Officer Ipswich , Suffolk Excellent opportunity within local Housing Trust for an experienced Money Advice Officer who can provide Welfare rights and Financial ... salary of between # 18-22 ,000 per annum + company benefits . Whilst they are looking for relevant Welfare and financial advice experience ... WELFARE 2 WORK Recruitment Consultant Manpower UK Limited - Leeds . Excellent knowledge of the recruitment process Excellent knowledge of local labour market needs Excellent knowledge of the Welfare to Work Agenda ... skills Excellent proven problem solving skills Significant experience of customer service within Welfare to Work/Recruitment . Experience ... Welfare Officer Gosport , Hampshire • Maintain Families files and records • Maintaining the Project documents and filing system • To travel as required in support of the Family welfare ... Sales Manager - Welfare to Work Permanent Futures - London If you would like a confidential chat about this role please call Tina Lacey R3 Resourcing Welfare and Skills ... Business Development Executive - Welfare to Work Genie Personnel - London successful operations in welfare to work , adult skills development and business support markets , this role will make a significant contribution to the growth ... packages such as Powerpoint , Excel and Word . Experience of working in the welfare to work sector , adult skills development , careers advice ... Welfare Rights Advisers Required BRADFORD & AIREDALE CANCER SUPPORT - Bradford Compassionate , enthusiastic and dynamic Welfare Rights Advisers required Applicants must have strong IT skills and at least 2 years Welfare ... Welfare Rights Advisor - Camden Camden Town , North West London Swim Social Work Team are looking to recruit a Welfare Rights Advisor to the London Borough of Camden The main purpose of this role ... relating to casework . Minimum 12 months experience of welfare right casework and benefits practice within a statutory or voluntary sector setting ... Welfare rights advisor Camden Town , North West London , providing welfare rights information and advice to the public , Council staff and other statutory and non-statutory agencies in response to telephone ... and written queries . Provide specialist welfare rights casework service to low-income Camden residents and maintain a comprehensive knowledge ... Account Managers - Welfare to Work South East England - South West London new division within an established company , they are experiencing rapid growth as companies and colleges who deliver welfare-to-work ... experience within the welfare-to-work industry or a demonstrable record of success within recruitment consultancy . You will be aware ... Employer Engagement Consultant - Welfare to Work Harlow , Essex . The company is a provider of Welfare to Work services in the area and you will be responsible for developing relationships with local ... as a Recruitment Consultant or in a Business Development role within Welfare to Work , to obtain vacancies from local employers ( National to SME businesses ... Employer Engagement Consultant - Welfare to Work Chelmsford , Essex Chelmsford . The company is a provider of Welfare to Work services in the area and you will be responsible for developing relationships with local ... as a Recruitment Consultant or in a Business Development role within Welfare to Work , to obtain vacancies from local employers ( National to SME businesses ... Employment Consultants - Welfare to Work Manchester - Lancashire A Corporate Welfare to Work Delivery Provider seeks two Employment Consultants for an immediate start in their flagship Manchester office ... . To apply for this role you must have experience in the delivery of coaching services and support to clients / candidates within Welfare to Work or the Recruitment ... Employer Engagement Consultant - Welfare to Work Luton . The company is a provider of Welfare to Work services in the area and you will be responsible for developing relationships with local ... as a Recruitment Consultant or in a Business Development role within Welfare to Work , to obtain vacancies from local employers ( National to SME businesses ... Business Development / Analyst / Bid Writer / Tender / Welfare to Work South East England - London scale procurement exercises . With footprints in the UK , Australia , Poland , France and Germany and existing successful operations in welfare ... in either Welfare-to-Work , business support or skills markets in the UK and globally · Research customer demographics , labour market ... Employer Engagement Consultant - Welfare to Work Luton an Employer Engagement Consultant to develop new and existing business with local employers in Luton . The company is a provider of Welfare to Work ... within Welfare to Work , to obtain vacancies from local employers ( National to SME businesses ) . The Work Programme

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Housing association

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Wikipedia article: Housing association

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Updated Figures Show Much Greater U.S. Wind Power Potential Follow Matter Network Facebook Twitter Newsletter LinkedIn News and ideas for a sustainable world Search Building Computing CSR Energy Gadgets Investing Jobs Smart Grid TransportationTravel ADVERTISEMENT Books that Matter Bloom Energy : Should You Believe the Hype ? Golf Club Recycles Water to Irrigate Greens » Energy | February 22 , 2010 | by SustainableBusiness.com Updated Figures Show Much Greater U.S. Wind Power Potential New figures from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory show that US wind resources are significantly greater than previously estimated . Onshore US wind resources could generate nearly 37,000,000 gigawatt-hours ( GWh ) annually , more than nine times current total US electricity consumption , according to analysis by the American Wind Energy Association ( AWEA ) . The previous national government survey of US wind resources , carried out by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory , estimated US wind potential at 10,777,000 GWh . Put another way , the potential capacity of [START_ENT] America [END_ENT] ’s onshore wind resource is over 10,000 gigawatts ( GW ) . The US is barely tapping this vast resource : current wind installed capacity is 35 GW in the US and 158 GW world-wide . These larger estimates are due to improved wind turbine technology , as today ’s taller turbines tap better winds at higher elevations ( this study measured winds at 80 meters ) , and to more refined wind measurements . The new figures ranked the following states as the ten windiest , Texas , Kansas , Montana , Nebraska , South Dakota , North Dakota , Iowa , Wyoming , Oklahoma , New Mexico . Indiana , Ohio and Oregon moved up into the list of the top 20 windiest states . In a single year , the US wind resource potential could produce 364.9 quadrillion btus , the energy equivalent of all proven oil and natural gas reserves in the US as estimated by the Energy Information Administration ( EIA ) . And , of course , as a renewable resource , wind will not be depleted and will continue to provide energy year after year . " This new analysis confirms that America is blessed with vast wind resources that can energize our economy , create jobs , and avoid carbon for years to come -- if we give ourselves the policy tools to do so , including a strong national Renewable Electricity Standard with aggressive , binding near - and long-term targets . " AWEA CEO Denise Bode said in a release . " The wind resource is there , vast and inexhaustible , waiting for us . Meanwhile , the economy ca n’t wait , job creation ca n’t wait , and America ca n’t wait . We need Congress to act now and pass a comprehensive climate and energy bill that includes a strong national Renewable Electricity Standard

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Answer

United States

Provenance

Wikipedia article: United States

Input

Cache-control : private Game-Cheat-Codes . Com - Cheat codes for Battle Network Rockman EXE 2 Game-Cheat-Codes . Com Cheat Codes for Battle Network Rockman EXE 2 Menu Home Page Cheat Codes PC Cheats PS2 Codes Xbox Playstation Game Boy Advance Nintendo DS PSP Cheat Gamecube Community Links Link to Us Battle Network Rockman EXE 2 # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Free look at a locked cubeIf you want to just take a look at the purple cube and you have an Unlocker , save the game next to it . Use the Unlocker and if the item is bad , then reset the game . Element stylesThe Element of the type of chips you use depends on what style you get first . For example , Fire Chips for Fire Element , Water Chips for Water Element , etc. . Shadow Wide SwordIf you have any type of Shadow Chip and already upgraded the charge in your Mega Man profile , equip the Shadow Chip during battle and charge your Blaster while you are in shadow mode . When the charge is ready , release A and you will immediately transport to the enemy panels . The closest enemy to you will be hit with the Shadow Wide Sword , as well as anyone else in a vertical angle . The damage is the same from your Blaster when charged . Battle BassAfter defeating Planetman , you can fight the real Bass . He has 2000 HP and a Life Aura 1 that will reappear . When you defeat him , you will get his Bass chip . Transparent Mega ManGo to a panel in Kotobuki , Yumland , or Undernet and slide on the arrow panels . Walk back into the panels . Note : It should not t let you through . This will make two Mega Man bodies appear ; if not , just two faces . Third folderDefeat Shadowman and Freezeman . Then , go to the Mother Computer area . Go to the second mini-computer ( the first one you jack into ) . There will be a girl there that wants a Bigbomb Star . Give one to her and she will give you a Program Advance Folder . Note : It does not contain every Chip for every Program Advance . Removing panelsWhen you get into a battle and there are panels that move you up and down , wait until the chip selector appears . If Repair is in your deck , use it and it will take away the panels that move you up and down . Blocking FishysWhenever you fight a Fishy ( V1 V2 or V3 ) , use a chip that sets up an obstacle ( Remobit , Guardian , etc. ) and put it in front of you . The Fishys can not go through these obstacles . This is useful for buying time to get chips or PA in the exams . Using SlasherHold A and if an enemy comes in front of you , they will get hit . Get Sanctuary chip ( 266 ) Get all of the five stars and begin hard mode . When you complete hard mode , Sanctuary will be in your original save file ( not hard mode ) . BodyGaurd Advance Put the following chips in the order shown : Dropdown S , Anti-Navi S , ShadowMan S ( V1 , V2 , V3 ) . Curse Advance The Curse Advance does quite a lot of damage . You must have CurseShield1 , 2 , and 3 ; Code : P , A , or O for all of them . To use any of the CurseShields , you must get hit , then the thing dashes out and bites . The Curse Advance dashes down all three lines , biting . BigHeart Advance Select , in order , HolyPanel R ( from Brush Man ) , Recover300 R ( from having SS or SSS license in Undernet 7 ) , and Roll R ( v1 , v2 , v3 ) . PoisPhar AdvancePut the following chips in the order shown : PoisMask A , Poisface A , Anubis A. Subchip plus memoryAfter you defeat Magnet Man , go to Netopia . In first screen ( after going out from Arrival Lobby ) , search a tree in west screen . Talk to the boy and you will get Subchip plus memory . Zeta Cannon upgrade chipDuring a fight , at any time you get these chips , you will form the Zeta Cannon : Cannon A , Cannon B , Cannon C. Note : You have only five seconds with this cannon -- shoot as many shots as possible . Remember to put them in alphabetical order . Z-Canon2 ChipSelect Hi-Cannons C D E , DEF , or E F G in that order . This allows you to shoot Hi-Cannons with unlimited ammunition for five seconds at the speed of the X-Buster . This can only be selected in battle . Z-Canon1 ChipSelect Cannons ABC , B C D , or C D E in that order . This allows you to shoot Cannons with unlimited ammunition for five seconds at the speed of the X-Buster . This can only be selected in battle . 2xHero Chip Advance You must have these chips in this order during a battle for the 2xHero Chip upgrade : Custswrd B , Varswrd B , Protoman B. Note : You must have the same code and have to be in the order shown . O-Canon1 ChipSelect Cannons A B C D and E in that order . This allows you to shoot Cannons with unlimited ammunition for ten seconds at the speed of the X-Buster . This can only be selected in battle . Secret chips ( 251 to 260 ) To get the ten secret chips , you must have two Gameboy Advances , two Mega Man Battle Network 2 games , and a link cable . Both games must have at least three stars next to their name . If you have four stars , the odds will be higher . Link up the games and go into Network . Save the game when prompted , then choose Netbattle ( not Practice Battle ) . Battle the other person and get an S rank on them . This is done easier if one player allows the other to kill them . You will get a secret chip approximately every twenty battles . The secret chip you get will be random . Darkness Advance In order to get the strongest attack in the game , you must have these chips in this order : Bass v3 X , AntiNavi X , Fire/Aqua/Elec / Wood Gspl X. Note : It will not work with another Bass because their chip code is F. O-Canon2 ChipSelect Hi-Cannons C D E F and G in that order . This allows you shoot Hi-Cannons with unlimited ammunition for ten seconds at the speed of the X-Buster . This can only be selected in battle . Best Chip Trader The best Chip Trader is the one in the ACDC Town Metroline . Geddon3 chip After you defeat Shadow Man , go to MarinHarbor . From the center building , go down the flight of stairs and look closely at the screen . You should see a blur every few seconds . Walk up and talk to it . A little girl will say , " You found it ! You take it " . You will receive the Geddon3 chip . After acquiring the Geddon3 chip , put it in your folder with a Repair Chip ( preferably a * code chip ) . Being that it makes all panels , swap panels ( which constantly takes your health away ) . Use the Repair to fix your panels , leaving your opponents to suffer . Note : Have Repair out when you take out Geddon 3 . Airman Version 3 You can find Airman Version 3 in Den Area 1 . He deals around 100 damage for each attack but you can get 500 Zenny if you have a low rankFor about a Busting Lv . 6 , you can get another Airman Chip . Navi Chip codes The code at the bottom of a Navi chip is its name in Japanese . For example , Bass is named Forte and his code is F. Protoman is named Blues and his symbol is B. SSS license Set either an Invis chip with a * code as your default chip , and make sure you have the chip ZeusHamr . In most of the battles , this will kill all the enemies . It can break through Guard ; it even works on Hardheads . Note : Make sure that if there is a Cloudy or a Flappy that you do not use ZeusHamr until after they land or else it will not hit them . Getting free Navi chips You can get Navi chips in the slot in Netopia near the Hotel and Bank . Choose ten chips in the slot and get a new Navi chip back free . Sometimes you can even get Version 2 Chips . Note : A Navi chip does not appear every time . Defeat Freezeman , then go to ACDCtown . There will be a chip trader by the posters . You will get all the Navi chips except Bass and a few other that you can get only in the WWW area . Black Navi locations Black Navi 1 : Underkoto Black Navi 2 : Undernet area 6 Black Navi 3 : Netarea 2 Black Navi 4 : Yumland area 2 Easy S-busting level A very good way to get an S busting level is to use Advances . It seems necessary for some Bosses such as Bass . Some good ones are : Life Srd 3 ( line up Elec , Heat , and aqua Blades . Buy them or get them from Green Mystery Data in WWW area 1 ) ; Arrows ( Double , Triple , and Quad Needle ) ; and Ultra bomb ( Lil , Cros , and Big Bombs ) . SS licenseAfter you get the S license , " Delete Gospel " , and " Star ID " , go through the Undernet to where the laser grid with the " ? " on it was located . Check it and it will open . The portal will then take you directly to the WWW area 1 . Go through with your S license in hand , but be careful . Once you are inside the WWW you can not jack out . Once through , you will see many new enemies and some are very difficult to kill . Just run from or kill them and use Full-Enrgs . Go as far as you can through WWW in area 1 . Do not go into area 2 , no matter what . You will find a cube requiring an S license to open . There are still more obstacles , Before going through the portal there , you will encounter three Protecto1s . To delete these you will have to do 200 damage to all of them at once . Once they are gone , go through the portal and unlock the " Mystery Data " . It is army data . Jack out at this point and save the game . Jack back in again and go to the License Examiner . You can now take the test . Extra Damage from Airman Chip Go to the front and if an enemy is in the front rank also , use the Airman chip to do double the damage . Gamecube logoAfter defeating Shadowman , reenter the main mother computer . Go to the back of the computer . Stand in front of the " mother computer main server " , where Shadowman was standing before you fought him . Slowly go to [START_ENT] Megaman [END_ENT] 's right . Upon a stack of cubes with purple , squiggly lines on them will be the Gamecube logo . Easy Zenny From where you are presently , keep walking around and battle a lot of enemies . If you are in Ms. Million 's bag , you can get about 400 Zenny in each battle . You can also get 10,000 Zenny from doing the love letter job and from Ms. Millions . In the Undernet 5 are three Green Mystery Datas . Save in front of them , then move the pointer in one direction to receive 100 Zenny , a virus , or 50,000 Zenny in each one of the three Green Mystery Datas . Make sure you have Untrap . Go to Undernet 5 . There will be three mystery program data . Use the Sub-chip Untrap and walk up to one of the mystery data . Unlock it . It will more than likely say " You got 100 Zenny ! " . Find the other one . It will usually have the same message . Find the last one . It will say " You got 50,000 Zenny ! " . Then , jack out and do it again . You can only do this a total of seven times ; save it for when you need it . Strongest ComboAt the Battle with etheir the Opponent are Virus or Navi , put a Battle Chip " Prism " right in middle of the Opponent ` s Field . Then throw a " Forest Bomb " to the Prism on the opponent ` s field . WWW areaSuccessfully complete the game to unlock the WWW area . Go to Ula Internet area 4 and look for a glowing red warp . Enter it to access the WWW

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Answer

Mega Man

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Mega Man

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Content-Length : 40342 First Baptist Church Windermere - Local Missions MediaMember LoginSpecial Needs FamiliesHome Page WorshipWorship ArtsLive Worship Sundays 11 a.m. . About UsWhat We BelieveOur PurposeThe ONE ProjectDirectionsMediaBaptism Info StaffPastors and DirectorsContact UsDiscover MembershipEmployment OpportunitiesE-GivingFor Our MembersKidsChildren 's MinistryPreschoolWeekends for PreschoolersWed . Nights for PreschoolersParent/Child DedicationMothers of Preschoolers-MOPsAWANAElementary ( K-4th Graders ) K-4th WeekendsK-4th Wednesday NightsLarge Group Worship-FusionTimeWhat We 're LearningScoutingSurge ( 5th-6th Grades ) SURGE - 5th-6th GradesSurge Wednesday NightsSurge-Studies and ServingAWANAChildren 's ContactsChildren 's ContactsVolunteer With Us!Volunteer OpportunitiesAWANASpecial Needs FamiliesSpecial Needs-ACCEPT MinistriesWeekday Children 's ProgramsWeekday Children 's ProgramsWindermere Comm . PreschoolWindermere Community PreschoolChild Development CenterCDCKids On the MoveAfter School Care & Day CampSchool Year Day CampVBS 2012StudentsStudent Ministry Events!DiscipleNow ' 12MusicAmp 'd Choir ( 7th-12th Grades ) Surge ( 5th-6th Grades ) SURGE ( 5th-6th Grades ) Small GroupsMiddle & High School CollegeCollege Small GroupsGiving backCoalition For The HomelessMission trip support sample letterLarge Groups - Wed. . NightsMiddle & High SchoolTexting service sign upAdultsAdult MinistriesSmall GroupsSmall Groups Small Groups Off CampusSat . Groups Downtown Campus Sun . Groups Lakeside CampusSun . Groups Downtown Campus Windermere UWednesday Dinner Menu Special Windermere U EventsWindermere U 2012Support GroupsSupport GroupsGriefShare - LakesideDivorceCare - DowntownCollege MinistryCollege Small GroupsCONNECTCONNECT Homeschool GroupCONNECT EventsCONNECT BrochureCONNECT Mission StatementMen 's MinistryMen 's MinistryWomen 's MinistryWomen 's Ministry HomeOn Campus Studies Off Campus Studies Ongoing EventsPrecept TrainingWeddingsHoly Land TourSpecial Events-SeminarsServing/MissionsI ServeLocal MissionsLocal MissionsGlobal MissionsGlobal MissionsBurundi Christian MinistriesBrazil PartnershipDisaster Relief TrainingRecreationSports & RecreationSports for KidsSports/Recreation for Adults LOCAL MINISTRIES OF FBCW Madison House Senior Living8001 Pin OakOrlando , FL WHO THEY ARE : An assisted living for seniors whose philosophy is to incorporate not only resident ’s individual interests , but opportunities that allow them to make meaningful contributions to each other and the community on a regular basis . WHAT YOU CAN DO : Assist Al & Sherri Esken and the McCrea small group with worship service , singing , and praying . Help our seniors feel they are not forgotten and share the word of God with them.NEXT DATES : Every Wednesday from 10:00 -11:00 a.m.CONTACT : Al Esken at 407.876-2234 Matthew 's Hope Winter Garden , FL WHO THEY ARE : A Non-Profit Homeless Outreach completely funded and supported by the local community , and volunteers representing over 25 Churches , Civic Organizations , and area Businesses . It all began with a " Freeze Warning " Shelter offering the homeless a place to escape the cold when temperatures dropped to dangerous lows . This Outreach now has expanded to offer many services to the Homeless Community of West Orange County every Tuesday from 9:30 AM to closing at 5:30 PM at the conclusion of our evening meal . The Volunteers of Matthew ’s Hope help connect our structurally challenged friends with various resources and services such as Medical & Dental Assistance , Food Stamps , Florida ID ’s , [START_ENT] Social Security [END_ENT] , Mental Health Care , Disability and VA Benefits along with offering Showers , Haircuts , Clothing , Shoes , Tents , Bikes , Hygiene Products and much more . Donations can be dropped off at any time , you may leave your donation on the front porch at our facility . WHAT YOU CAN DO : Laundry , help with registration , serve breakfast , lunch or dinner ; sort clothes that have been donated . Endless opportunities to help in this ministry . Help out in the new garden that has recently been planted.NEXT DATES : 2nd Tuesday - we serve at 4:30 p.m.CONTACT : Poston 's Small Group | Kathy Marlow or Matthew 's Hope Buddy Break WHO THEY ARE : An outreach of FBCW , Buddy Break is a free respite program to give caregivers of individuals with special needs a well deserved break for 3 hours one Friday night or one Saturday morning a month.WHAT YOU CAN DO : 3-4 hours ( 6:30 -9:30 p.m. ) once a month . Always in need of Buddies - Students welcome - you can earn Community Service hours for school . NEXT DATES : Jan 20 | 6:30 -9:30 p.m. ; Feb 17 | 6:30 -9:30 p.m. ; Mar 17 | 10:00 a.m.-1 :00 p.m. ; Apr 20 | 6:30 -9:30 p.m. ; May 19 | 10:00 a.m.-1 :00 p.m. ; Jul 13 | 6:30 -9:30 p.m. ; Aug 18 | 10:00 a.m.-1 :00 p.m. ; Sept 17 | 10:00 a.m.-1 :00 p.m. ; Oct 20 | 10:00 a.m.-1 :00 p.m. ; Nov 9 | 6:30 -9:30 p.m. ; Dec 14 | 7:00 -9:00 p.m. ( Family Christmas Party ) CONTACT : Email Denise Burch , or 407.579.0489 Under The Tree Ministry WHO THEY ARE : We take new and used toys clean and fix them up , then give them along with food to VERY needy children in the local area . We also host a BIG Christmas party for the families at a small church in the Bottoms in Oakland . WHAT YOU CAN DO : You can bring toys to the Lakeside campus and help serve at the Christmas party.NEXT DATES : TBDCONTACT : Email Janet Massey or call her at 321.948.5995 Edgewater Children 's Ranch 1451 Edgewood Ranch Rd Orlando , FL 32835 WHO THEY ARE : Edgewood Children ’s Ranch is a nonprofit Christian childcare organization helping children , teens and their families address behavioral issues . Our live-in facility offers spiritual guidance , academic remediation , and behavioral training to children and teens ages 6-17 . WHAT YOU CAN DO : Your group can bring a meal once a month to the facility , serve it and interact with the residents.We are there 2 times each month : NEXT DATES : Friday eveningsCONTACT : Lisa Amat , lisaamat@gmail.com or Don BurnsNEXT DATES : 3rd MondayCONTACT : Peggy Johnson , or phone 407-716-6188 Bethany Christian Services29 W. Smith StreetWinter Garden , FL 34787WHO THEY ARE : Bethany Christian Services is a global nonprofit organization caring for orphans and vulnerable children on five continents . Bethany was founded in 1944 and is recognized as a prominent leader in social services worldwide . We are the largest adoption agency in the US Our mission calls to demonstrate the love and compassion of Jesus Christ by protecting and enhancing the lives of children and families around the world . Bethany envisions a world where every child has a loving family . WHAT YOU CAN DO : Ask Don by clicking on his name below to send an email.NEXT DATES : Contact Don by clicking on his name below.CONTACT : Don Schafhauser Women 's Shelter " Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this : to look after widows and orphans in their distress . " James 1:27 WHO THEY ARE : A local shelter for women and their children during a time of great crisis . WHAT YOU CAN DO : Your group can bring a meal once a month to the facility , serve it and interact with the residents . NEXT DATES : 3rd Tuesday of every month ( Surge Kids ) & the 1st Monday of every month ; and the 1st Friday of every month ( Chuck Carter 's Small Group ) ; contact Christal Lung.CONTACT : Contact coordinator Jody Branham if you would like to help by cooking for us , delivery to the shelter from the church , or pick up . To contact Jody : cell 321.228.6271 and her email is mbranham@cfl.rr.com . Accept Pregnancy Center " You knit me together in my mother 's womb ... " Psalm 139.13 Last year , 199 babies were saved through the Accept Pregnancy Center , located on 407 Dillard Street in Winter Garden . You can help women in crisis with unplanned pregnancies . WHO THEY ARE : An environment for women in crisis . WHAT YOU CAN DO : Advisory Board : help with the spiritual and financial well-being of the ministry . Intercessor : Commit to pray 15-30 minutes on a specific day of the week for staff , volunteers , and ministry needs . Counselor : Must have completed the Volunteer Training class . Work one-on-one with clients . You will be trained to listen , educate , and provide a source of hope to clients that seek our services . Receptionist : Must have completed the Volunteer Training class . Responsible for greeting and checking in clients , make appointments , perform simple office duties , answer incoming calls . Clothes Closet Volunteer : Pull orders for clients ; wash , fold , hang , organize , and mend donated maternity and baby clothing . Need individuals with sewing abilities to sew clothing for our clients . Church Liaison : No special training required ... just a willingness to represent APC to your local church fellowship . Special Events Development : Assist with fundraising events of our ministry . Requires short term commitments . Maintenance Volunteer : general cleaning of our center ; mowing the lawn or making various repairs as needed . NEXT DATES : Any time . Volunteer training is held twice a year at APC.CONTACT : Elvie Griffin & Tom Kennington 's Small GroupTheresa Jenkins at 407.654.0820 , or go to their website : www.AcceptPregnancy.org Next Door MinistryThis multi-family housing ministry is looking for volunteers who can spend one Saturday afternoon a month with us at local apartment communities sharing God 's love to children and their families . We also operate a bus ministry in which our volunteers would serve on a rotational basis . WHO THEY ARE : An outreach to a local apartment complex , entertaining children and giving a VBS-like presentation.WHAT YOU CAN DO : Join them on the 2nd Saturday of each month . They meet at 1:45 p.m. at the Mystic Pointe 2 Apts . to pray and set up ; start by 2:00 - 3:30 pm.NEXT DATES : Jan 14 ; Feb 11 ; Mar 10 ; Apr 14 ; May 12 ; Sept 15 ; Oct 13 ; Nov 19 ; Dec 8 . CONTACT : Tony Hollowell Sew Love the World Ministries Do you like to sew and make crafts ? Do you like to help others ? Then once a month , join Delinda Kennington to make blankets and other items for local ministries such Accept Pregnancy and foreign missions like Burundi . Just bring sharp scissors . All materials are provided . WHO THEY ARE : A ministry of our church providing handmade items to those in need locally and around the world.WHAT YOU CAN DO : Join the group when they meet to make hats , blankets , bonnets and many other items.NEXT DATES : 2nd Tuesday of the month from 9:30 - 11:30 a.m. at our Downtown Campus , Room 107CONTACT : Email Delinda Kennington or call 407.876.3138 The Boy Scouts of America is well known for building character , training young men in the responsibilities of participating citizenship , and developing personal fitness . We are proud to host Cub Scout Pack 225 along with Boy Scout Troop 225 . For more Boy Scouts info , please email Jim & Dianna Cotter . For more Cub Scouts info , please email Jeff Watson The Central Florida Compassion Center / Thrift Store The Compassion Center/Thrift Store has had to close down their location on Silver Star & Pine Hills Rds . They are currently looking for a new location . If you know of a warehouse-type facility that is available , please let us know so that we can continue this ministry to the people of Central Florida

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Social Security (United States)

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Wikipedia article: Social Security (United States)

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FSN ~ Financial Reporting ~ “ The Impact of the Narrative Reporting Provisions of the Companies Act 2006 on Performance Reporting ” HOME ABOUT US FSN CONFERENCES BOOKSTORE CHANNELS : SECTORS : BI , BPM & CPM Document Management Enterprise Financials Financial Reporting Human Resources KPI & Environment Mid-Range Accounting Outsourcing SME Accounting CATEGORIES : CEO Interviews Market Analysis Product Reviews Videos & Webinars White Papers FEEDS : View All Feeds Newswires Financial Reporting White Paper “ The Impact of the Narrative Reporting Provisions of the Companies Act 2006 on Performance Reporting ” 6th November 2006 Contents INTRODUCTION Timing THE DETAIL OF THE BUSINESS REVIEW Section 423 , Contents of Business review THE CHALLENGES OF THE EBR The strategic purpose of the EBR The EBR must be “ balanced and comprehensive ” Forward looking statements Disclosure of KPIs THE IMPACT ON APPLICATIONS AND PROCESSESS Strategy setting Planning , budgeting and forecasting Scorecarding and dash-boarding Consolidation Reporting INTEGRATION IS KEY SUMMARY INTRODUCTION : The UK 's system of company law and corporate governance , setting out the legal basis on which companies are formed and run , is a vital part of the legal framework within which business is conducted . But over time , the Companies Acts 1985 and 1989 have become convoluted and unwieldy to understand as successive amendments were made and changes emanating from Europe impacted on our domestic law . So the Companies Act 2006 is a consolidating piece of legislation which will codify and re-arrange existing regulation into a more readily understandable and comprehensive source of law whilst giving effect to new aspects of regulation as part of the government 's reform agenda . In broad terms , the Act is designed to promote shareholder engagement and a long-term investment culture as well as introduce new provisions for small companies , for example , making it easier to set up and run a company . But it also introduces new requirements around narrative and performance reporting for all but the smallest of companies 1 -- the subject of this review . Helpfully , in addition to codifying the requirements of the EU Accounts Modernisation Directive the Act ends much of the uncertainty following the withdrawal of the ‘ Operating and Financial Review ' ( OFR ) which was abruptly abandoned by the government in November 2005 . After the demise of the OFR , the government has re-affirmed its commitment to “ encouraging meaningful strategic , forward-looking information to assist shareholder engagement ” , but there are some notable differences between the narrative reporting provisions of the Act and the OFR it replaces . For instance , although auditors will continue to be required to report on the consistency of the Directors ' Report with the annual accounts ( as is required by the Accounts Modernisation Directive ) there will not be any additional requirement to check for other inconsistencies . Furthermore , all companies will be exempted from disclosing in the Business Review information which is seriously prejudicial to the company 's interests . This exemption was previously only provided for companies that had to produce an OFR ; and finally , there will be no statutory reporting standards for the Business Review . The former Accounting Standards Board ( ASB ) Standard ( RS1 ) has been relegated to the status of a statement of best practice . So , for example , the Act is much less prescriptive than RS1 about the information to be disclosed when reporting KPIs . One important change that may have gone unnoticed by many is that the requirements for narrative reporting have been streamlined so that the obligations for quoted companies are now more closely aligned to those for unquoted companies . The effect is that all companies ( other than small companies ) and not just quoted companies , will need to produce a Business Review as required by the EU Accounts Modernisation Directive , with the primary purpose of helping shareholders to assess how the directors have performed their duty to “ promote the success of the company ” . This white paper reviews the main provisions of the Business Review and explains the implications for performance systems and processes . Note 1 Companies normally fall into a size category if they meet two out of the three criteria Category Turnover ( not more than ) Balance sheet total ( not more than ) Number of employees ( not more than ) Small company # 5.6 million # 2.8 million 50 Medium company # 22.8 million # 11.4 million 250 Timing : The [START_ENT] Bill [END_ENT] was introduced to the House of Lords on 1 November 2005 and brought forward to the House of Commons on 24 May 2006 . The Bill completed the Commons Committee stage on 20 July 2006 and received the Royal Assent this Autumn . However , the requirement to produce a Business Review is a current legal obligation introduced into the Companies Act 1985 to implement the EU Accounts Modernisation Directive . So in practice , companies must continue to prepare and publish a directors ' report containing a business review for all financial years beginning on or after 1 April 2005 . THE DETAIL OF THE BUSINESS REVIEW Unless a company is subject to the small companies ' regime , the directors ' report must contain a Business Review . The purpose of the Business Review is to inform the members of the company and help them assess how the directors have performed their duty to promote the success of the company ( section 173 ) . s. 423 Contents of Business review Section 423 says that the Business Review must contain -- ( a ) a fair review of the company 's business , and ( b ) a description of the principal risks and uncertainties facing the company It is also required to be a balanced and comprehensive analysis of -- ( a ) the development and performance of the company 's business during the financial year , and ( b ) the position of the company 's business at the end of that year , consistent with the size and complexity of the business . In the case of a quoted company the Business Review must , to the extent necessary for an understanding of the development , performance or position of the company 's business , include -- ( a ) the main trends and factors likely to affect the future development , performance and position of the company 's business ; and ( b ) information about -- ( i ) environmental matters ( including the impact of the company 's business on the environment ) , ( ii ) the company 's employees , and ( iii ) social and community issues , including information about any policies of the company in relation to those matters and the effectiveness of those policies . If the review does not contain information of each kind mentioned in paragraph ( b ) ( i ) , ( ii ) and ( iii ) , it must state which of those kinds of information it does not contain . In addition , the review must , to the extent necessary for an understanding of the development , performance or position of the company 's business , include -- ( a ) analysis using financial key performance indicators , and ( b ) where appropriate , analysis using other key performance indicators , including information relating to environmental matters and employee matters . [ “ Key performance indicators ” means factors by reference to which the development , performance or position of the company 's business can be measured effectively . ] Where a company qualifies as small or medium-sized it does not have to produce key performance indicators in so far as they relate to non - financial information . ( The precise rules governing what qualifies as a medium sized company are contained in s474 but in general , a company is medium sized if it meets two of the following three criteria ; turnover not more than # 22.8 m , balance sheet total not more than # 11.4 m and number of employees not more than 250 ) . A significant change is that the Act gives directors a safe harbour from civil liability in respect of statements or omissions made in the Business Review . Liability will only attach to directors if such statements are untrue or misleading and are made in bad faith or recklessly or , in the case of an omission , there is dishonest concealment of material facts . THE CHALLENGES OF THE EBR So the Business Review , sometimes referred to as the Enhanced Business Review or EBR deals principally with mid-sized companies , large companies and listed entities registered in the UK . However it is worth noting that countries right across the European Community will be seeking to embody the requirements of the EU Accounts Modernisation Directive in similar domestic legislation . At first sight , the requirements of the EBR seem fairly innocuous and undemanding . Afterall , most companies should be able to produce a fair review of the company 's business , and its trading position at the end of that year . However , there are a number of matters of emphasis and disclosure that need to be considered carefully and could present significant systems and process challenges for companies that are ill-prepared . By and large , quoted companies should be in better shape to comply with the new legislation because the now defunct OFR acted as a ‘ dry run ' . Although the last minute withdrawal of the OFR was frustrating for some , its likely implementation forced listed companies to launch OFR projects to plan for appropriate systems and processes to be put in place . But an unfortunate side effect of the sudden demise of the OFR is that the ensuing debate masked the fact that all companies were going to have to produce a Business Review and as such , many non-listed companies are poorly prepared . Leading up to the new millennium , many organisations lavished spending on ERP and other transaction systems rather than management information systems which have a pivotal role to play in support of narrative reporting . As a result , management information processes and enabling technologies are fractured and information of the sort envisaged by the EBR is not uniformly easy to gather . Over reliance on spreadsheets , coupled with separate processes and systems , including but not limited to , statutory and management reporting , strategy setting , budgeting , forecasting and performance measurement means that data is duplicated and scattered widely throughout most organisations . As a result many companies will find aspects of the Act more challenging than perhaps legislators anticipated . An unhelpful aspect of the EBR is that commentators , the press and government refer to it as ‘ narrative reporting ' , which implies that it is a vague essay about performance . But as is so often the case , the devil is in the detail and close inspection of the Act 's requirement 's reveal that the areas covered are far reaching and extend into novel and unfamiliar territory such as environmental KPIs and forward looking statements . Furthermore , directors need to be mindful that there are penalties for reckless statements and although there are ‘ safe harbour ' provisions , it is important that the EBR is grounded in reliable and robust systems and processes so that directors can fulfil their obligations to report and , just as importantly , demonstrate that they have acted in good faith . The main challenges for companies in relation to performance systems and processes lie in the ; • need to satisfy the strategic purpose of the EBR • obligation to produce a “ balanced and comprehensive ” commentary • requirement to make forward looking statements • possible requirement to disclose KPIs , especially non-financial KPIs The strategic purpose of the EBR The main thrust of the EBR is to allow the ‘ members ' of the company to assess whether the directors have been successful in their legal duty to “ promote the success of the company ” -- in essence , whether the company has satisfactorily carried out its strategy . “ Success ” is very broadly defined and , amongst other matters , the directors must have regard for the interests of the company 's employees and the impact of the company 's operations on the community and the environment . The EBR must be “ balanced and comprehensive ” A balanced and comprehensive review suggests that underlying management information systems and processes should be capable of drawing together a wide range of information , gathered from multiple sources and that performance monitoring , measurement and reporting should capture good and bad performance i.e. balanced , throughout the reporting period , which now extends into the future ( see below ) . Forward looking statements The need for forward looking statements about likely performance in the future based on an analysis of “ trends and factors ” is a significant departure from existing company law which merely requires a review of historic performance . It will certainly require investment in appropriate planning , budgeting and forecasting systems . Disclosure of KPIs Most companies should have little difficulty preparing financial KPIs though management will need to judge which KPIs to disclose and ensure that they are consistently measured across the enterprise , since an EBR has to be produced for every company ( apart from small companies ) in the group . However , the requirement to produce non - financial KPIs , such as environmental or employee KPIs could be more stretching because of the need to decide the appropriate measures and draw on wider sources of information . THE IMPACT ON APPLICATIONS AND PROCESSESS Taking these matters together , it can be seen that the EBR draws on a very wide set of interrelated business applications and processes . Collectively , these related processes are referred to as “ Business Performance Management ” ( BPM ) . BPM is a ‘ closed loop ' process that commences with the preparation of a business strategy , the development of budgets and operational plans and then provides the means by which actual performance against plan can be measured , monitored and reported . In the fullness of time , the experience and insights gained from an analysis of performance and an understanding of the key trends and factors affecting it can be used to refine the strategy before the cycle starts all over again -- the closed loop . A typical performance management process Whilst the theory of BPM is well articulated in many organisations , there are often significant barriers to its implementation , such as an over-dependency on spreadsheets , the lack of suitable applications , enabling technologies and processes that bind them together . Strategy setting Perhaps the most under-served part of the BPM process is in the area of strategy setting and development . Given the pivotal role of strategy development for the conduct of the whole performance management cycle it is perhaps surprising that it is such a neglected process in so many organisations . Yet , it is often characterised by an un-auditable collection of standalone spreadsheets and documents which are not conducive to a strategically aligned organisation . The absence of suitable systems and process support in this vital area poses significant business risk to boards of directors seeking to demonstrate that they have “ promoted the success of the company ” . Clearly , it is management 's responsibility to develop a practical and realistic strategy for the organisation . However , technology has a vital role to play in ensuring that , the strategy is communicated throughout the organisation , that operational plans and performance measures are strategically aligned with it and that monitoring systems highlight management actions that need to be taken to keep the strategy on course . Therefore , in fulfilling the obligations of the EBR , there is a strong requirement for software tools which support the iterative process of strategy development and allow the outcome to be documented and revisited as appropriate . Planning , budgeting and forecasting Once developed , it is crucial that performance objectives are built into the operational plans and forecasts of the organisation . The forward looking orientation of the EBR makes it essential that boards consider the effect of current trends and factors on performance in the future . In order to meet this objective organisations require a budgeting and forecasting application that allows for frequent re-forecasting and can improve the analysis and business insights that can be obtained from the process . Modern web based planning applications encourage collaboration between budget holders , accelerate the re-forecasting process and through higher levels of participation can improve data quality and the frequency of re-forecasting . This latter point is important as the EBR requires directors to report in a “ balanced and comprehensive ” way throughout the period . The more frequently that organisations can re-forecast , the more likely it is that directors are acquainted with the trends and factors affecting performance . Scorecarding and dash-boarding However , if directors are to deliver success , it is vital that the strategy is communicated and understood throughout the organisation and that operational objectives and performance measures , which guide organisational behaviour , are strategically aligned . This is where scorecarding and dash-boarding applications come into play . They are designed to help companies articulate their strategy using KPIs , communicate strategy across the enterprise and link it to operational objectives and initiatives . Leveraging this technology , individual and departmental goals can be aligned with corporate goals and objectives thus ensuring accountability for delivering results throughout the organisation . Consolidation The EBR requires all of the strands of performance management to be brought together in a way that permits “ balanced and comprehensive ” reporting across the enterprise for all periods under review . In this context consolidation applications used for management and statutory reporting form a very necessary part of the drive to capture information reliably from a variety of underlying data sources at the end of each accounting period . Given the broadly based requirements of the EBR and in particular the possible need to report more widely on non-financial matters and related KPIs , consolidation systems become even more central to the solution . The ability to easily adapt data entry forms , collect statistical or memorandum information directly from the underlying transactions systems ( ERP ) and develop business logic as appropriate are essential to responding to the detail of the EBR . Web based data entry bolstered by vendor certified adapters that allow integration with third party transaction systems are becoming essential features for modern performance management systems . They can significantly reduce reporting cycles leaving management with more time to analyse performance and take remedial action as necessary . Reporting In recent years the advent of cost effective , web deployable reporting has opened up performance management applications to a much larger population of end users . Increasingly , this extended population has grown to include individuals from all levels of an organisation and most functional areas . Indeed , the EBR , with its diverse reporting requirements , underlines the need to engage with more individuals from across different functional areas in the organisation . With environmental , employee and social reporting firmly on the agenda , it is important that , say , finance directors , HR directors , Production directors and Investor Relations professionals are bound into a joined up process and equally comfortable with reporting from the performance management system regardless of their skills and background . So it is crucial too , that a performance management environment permits a variety of analytical tools to be deployed allowing users from different functional areas to select tools for the creation of regular production reporting , ad-hoc and interactive reports according to their personal preferences . As such , in addition to ‘ normal ' reporting , a performance management platform should ideally provide choices around , dashboards , scorecards , dynamic spreadsheets and portals as well as making use of the latest techniques in alerting , customisable displays ( colour coded meters , gauges and dials ) , animated pin-boards and “ traffic lighting ” to highlight under or over performance in a visually striking way . INTEGRATION IS KEY The performance management cycle as a business process draws on numerous specialised applications and potentially hundreds of underlying data sources to provide management insights . Traditional ETL ( Extract , Transform and Load ) tools , designed for bulk data transfers with no specific applications in mind are likely to prove lacking in a more challenging performance management environment . Newly emerging FDQM ( Financial Data Quality Management ) solutions created for complex performance management applications where interfaces are intricate and precision is vital will be more suitable . Specially designed to leverage the skills of the finance community to maintain financially oriented interfaces , they provide a bridge between source and target applications in a similar way to ETL but crucially provide visibility into the processes on either side , with full traceability of transactions backwards or forwards through the interfaces . Once the data is captured from the source systems it is vital that performance management processes , applications and data are fully integrated so that the integrity of data is assured right across the performance management environment and that all users share the same information . It is metadata that defines structural information , such as organisational hierarchies , account codes , time periods and product group dimensions that form the backbone of most performance management applications . Differences in metadata prevent reporting across applications and whilst it can be temporarily forced into alignment with clever mapping tools and technology it quickly slips out of alignment as changes are made to different business areas and applications . In theses circumstances , MDM ( Master Data Management ) style solutions that allows master data and data definitions to be staged in one repository so that the interrelationships between applications are defined and their metadata is synchronised throughout the performance management suite are crucial . MDM solutions ensure that amendments made to data structures by end users in any application are automatically reflected elsewhere so that any of the other applications working off the same data platform are automatically made ‘ aware ' of the change . Using this technique , structures are brought automatically into alignment , reporting maintains its integrity and consistency of reporting is assured . Unfortunately , many organisations have grown their performance applications and processes in isolation , often using different software vendor 's tools and spreadsheets which accentuate the differences . In these circumstances , each application is governed by its own business rules and data structures rendering comparisons of data held in different application areas unworkable . Making sense of all of this data presents significant management and IT challenges , particularly as the reporting landscape is constantly changing in the face of new reporting requirements . In addition a possible lack of consistency in reporting seriously jeopardises the reliability of reporting . In the context of the EBR , independent auditors have to attest that the claims made in the Business Review are consistent with the financial statements . Therefore , both management and auditors need certainty that , for example , a financial KPI reported in the EBR , such as Return on Capital Employed ( ROCE ) is completely consistent with the same values derived from a scorecard , the monthly board pack and the current forecast . So integration is at the heart of performance reporting and compliance with the EBR . It is only through integrated applications that management can be sure that the information it is using to analyse trends and factors affecting current and future performance is reliable and comparable over time . SUMMARY The narrative reporting requirements of the Companies Act 2006 are part of a growing trend in company reporting towards the convergence of external and internal management reporting combined with a surge of interest in non-financial reporting , most notably ; factors that affect employees , the environment and wider community . In effect , most of the provisions of the obsolete OFR have been re-introduced in the Act and apply equally to quoted and unquoted companies . The breadth of disclosure requirements coupled with formidable obligation to make forward looking statements means that management has to have its ‘ finger on the pulse ' of the company continually , analysing any trends and factors affecting performance right across the enterprise . Such demands mean that it is no longer viable for businesses to manage performance in functional silos or to use a series of unconnected applications and processes from different vendors which jeopardise data integrity . The need for constant appraisal of performance coupled the speed of reporting leaves no choice but for companies to standardise on an integrated performance management platform that can support robust and dependable processes from strategy setting right through to performance monitoring , analysis and reporting . But the needs of narrative reporting in the Business Review now extend beyond the pure technical requirement to unify metadata , applications and technology . Potentially , the construction of a comprehensive and balanced EBR requires the involvement of different functional specialists from across the organisation which means that systems have to address a wide range of competencies . The winners in performance management will be those BPM vendors that can provide an adaptable and rewarding ‘ user experience ' as well as an outstanding technical solution . About FSN Publishing Limited FSN Publishing Limited is an independent research , news and publishing Organisation catering for the needs of the finance function . The report is written by Gary Simon , Group Publisher of FSN and Managing Editor of FSN Newswire . He is a graduate of London University , a Chartered Accountant and a Fellow of the British Computer Society with more than 23 years experience of implementing management and financial reporting systems . Formerly a partner in Deloitte for more than 16 years , he has led some of the most complex information management assignments for global enterprises in the private and public sector . Gary.simon@fsn.co.uk www.fsn.co.uk Whilst every attempt has been made to ensure that the information in this document is accurate and complete some typographical errors or technical inaccuracies may exist . This report is of a general nature and not intended to be specific to a particular set of circumstances . FSN Publishing Limited and the author do not accept responsibility for any kind of loss resulting from the use of information contained in this document . back to top OTHER NEWS SECTORS BI , BPM & CPMview all » How you can your organisation cut its budget cycle by up to 50 % ? CXO Solutions extends CXO-Cockpit to SAP BPC users Performance Management Framework -- Part III DOCUMENT MANAGEMENTview all » Work smarter not harder with intelligent data capture Version One announces new release of its document management software . Rise of “ enterprise video ” creates challenges for finance ENTERPRISE FINANCIALSview all » Infor partners with Tata Consultancy Services Oracle launches Project Portfolio Management App for iPhone and Web Application Accountants and social media -- an unlikely pairing ? 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Bill (law)

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Wikipedia article: Bill (law)

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X-Pad : avoid browser bug Main lectures 42 microsymposium Main lectures 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ML01 CHEMILUMINESCENCE COMBINED WITH THERMAL ANALYSIS FOR STUDYING POLYMER OXIDATION N.C. BILLINGHAMa , P.K. FEARONa , M.N. GRIGGa , S.W. BIGGERb aDepartment of Chemistry , University of Sussex , Brighton , BN1 9QJ , UK bVictoria University of Technology , P.O. Box 14428 , Melbourne 8001 , Australia Because of the effectiveness of modern stabilisers , accelerated ageing tests must be used to evaluate their performance . Oven ageing testing is the most reliable but is time consuming . Differential Scanning Calorimetry ( DSC ) has been widely used for measuring oxidation induction times ( OIT ) but is usually ( mis ) used at temperatures above the melting point of the polymer . Many polymers emit light ( chemiluminescence , CL ) during oxidation . CL offers an alternative method to monitor oxidation , its advantage being very high sensitivity . CL imaging of oxidative degradation has recently been made possible by the development of low noise , high sensitivity cameras , which allow multiple sampling , reducing experimental times and cost . Imaging also allows study of inhomogeneity . In collaboration with Mettler Toledo , we have combined CL measurement with DSC in a single instrument . The combination has obvious advantages where oxidation occurs simultaneously with other thermal events , e.g. melting , since the CL is sensitive only to oxidation . CL in inert atmospheres can easily detect the presence of peroxides at concentrations well below those detectable by DSC . Measurements on unstabilised samples of polypropylene show good correlation of CL with heat flow data , with kinetics consistent with the Russell mechanism for CL . Studies of the formation of carbonyl groups show that the relation of CL to C =O content is also consistent with the Russell mechanism . For stabilised samples OITs measured by both CL and DSC are similar . It is easier to operate the CL at very high sensitivity and CL can easily detect OITs above 70 h. Increased oxygen pressures allow analysis by CL under conditions where DSC signals are noisy . There is good correlation between CL values measured by single-sample CL and imaging detection . Multiple detection needs some care in order to avoid cross sample contamination but allows major economy of equipment time . Some applications of the DSC / [START_ENT] CL [END_ENT] method will be discussed , including the assessment of stabiliser performance and the correlation of OIT and oven ageing . ML02 RADIATION AGEING OF POLYMER MATERIALS J.L. GARDETTE , A. RIVATON Laboratoire de Photochimie Moléculaire et Macromoléculaire , UMR CNRS 6505 , Université Blaise Pascal , 63177 Aubière cedex France The modifications of structure and properties of polymeric materials resulting of the ageing initiated by ionising radiations have been a subject of interest as soon as nuclear programs began . Exposure of polymers to radiative environments causes indeed a deterioration of their properties . It has been approximately 50 years since researchers first began studying the effects of ionising radiations on polymers . The main radiation-induced changes consist in scissions and/or crosslinking of the macromolecular chains , formation of gaseous products such as hydrogen or low molecular weight hydrocarbons , accumulation of oxidation products , loss and/or formation of unsaturations . Among the numerous studies devoted to the radiochemical ageing of polymers , many of them report on the mechanism of the - initiated degradation of polyolefins . This presentation concerns the behaviour of EPDM copolymers , which are composed of ethylene ( PE ) , propylene ( PP ) and diene monomer ( 5-ethylidene 2-norbornene ( ENB ) in this study ) . These polymers find numerous applications and are often used as wire insulators or joints . If the mechanisms of photo - and thermo-oxidations of EPDM can be considered as well known , the radiation induced degradation of these polymers has only received little attention . On the basis of a recent study involving the identification of the various products that are formed , a mechanism accounting for the radiochemical degradation of EPDM has been proposed , with a peculiar attention given to the role played by oxygen and by the ENB termonomer . Two main processes are involved in the radiooxidation of EPDM . The random - radiolysis of the polymer provides a constant source of macroalkyl radicals mainly formed on ethylene units . The secondary radicals so formed are likely to initiate a selective oxidation of the polymer through free-radicals reactions involving the abstraction of labile hydrogen atoms . In particular , the decomposition of hydroperoxydes and the degradation of the ENB moieties , this latter being the most oxidisable site and the source of crosslinking , may result from hydrogen abstraction by radicalar species .4 ML03 OVERVIEW AND PARTICULARITIES IN DEGRADATION OF POLYOLEFINS DERIVED FROM FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS I. TINCUL Sasol Technology , PO Box 1 , Sasolburg , 1947 , South Africa Polyolefins are without doubt the largest volume family of commercially polymers and a vast literature is dedicated to this field in the last half of century . The most complex pool of monomers is available from the Fischer Tropsch process that is gaining momentum as a major market source . When compared with ethylene oligomerization processes the main advantage of the Fischer Tropsch process is the production of odd carbon number linear and branched olefins that showed new application possibilities in both the polyethylene and polypropylene families . We prepared a large number of new polyolefins with Fischer Tropsch derived alpha olefins that have particular microstructures and morphology according to the type of branch , length of branch and number of branches / 1000 carbons . It is known that steric factors may play an important role in polyolefin degradation and that tertiary carbon is labile to oxidative attack . A decrease in crystallinity with the increase of comonomer content may favour auto-oxidation due to higher oxygen absorbtion . Very little literature on degradation of polyolefins prepared with Fisher Tropsch derived olefins is available . In this paper is presented and discussed some particularities on the degradation of polyolefins Fischer Tropsch derived . The manifestation of oxidation weather by temperature or aging concerning polymer appearance as discoloration , loss of optical properties , loss of mechanical properties and surface cracks were observed . This behaviour was similar to known polyolefins . Oxidation induction time as measured by DSC varies with the number of branch and length of branch introduced in the polymer chain by a certain comonomer . The thermal stability was measured also by thermogravimetry and compared with the polymer structure and thermal behaviour . The degradation temperature increases with an increase of carbon number of the comonomer . Investigation for a series of ethylene co-polymers and ter-polymers with linear and branched alpha olefins showed an increase of pre-exponential factor as a function of carbon number in an Arrhenius type equation . A decomposition kinetic study showed that the activation and the rate constant is also related to the size and type of branch . Rheological investigation showed a similar pattern . It was concluded that while polyolefins obtained with Fischer Tropsch derived olefins showed a behaviour similar with known polyolefins , particularities in degradation does exist and are related to the number and type of branch . ML04 ESSENTIAL CRITERIA FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECOVERY OF PLASTICS N. MAYNE Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe , Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4 , Box 3 , B -- 1160 Brussels E-mail address : neil.mayne apme.org Of the many options for recovery of plastics at the end-of-life , mechanical recycling is in principle the preferred route . There is an increasing understanding of the mechanisms , which affect the degradation of polymers or physical property enhancement by increasing their compatibility with other polymers . While many laboratory scale experiments demonstrate the potential for high levels of recycling , in practice the levels achieved on an industrial scale with post-consumer plastics can be viewed as disappointingly low . In addition to economic considerations , this is because there are a limited number of applications allowing closed loop recycling and there is a mismatch between the supply of recyclate and demand from the market . New developments will increase the potential , but such recycling will nevertheless remain limited . Feedstock recycling technologies offer versatility and many large scale processes have been developed and demonstrated . Logistics and supply commitments are key factors in determining viability . To date , fully commercial plants are only operational in Germany and Japan . A number of active developments are , however , currently underway in a number of European countries . Energy recovery will become an increasingly important recovery option as it is also being stimulated by restrictions on the landfilling of waste . Even if the full potential of mechanical recycling were to be realized , the major part of total plastics waste would still be available for use as an alternative fuel . This means that with the expected growth of plastics , this represents an increasingly important source of energy , equivalent to millions of tonnes of imported oil each year . The challenge for the successful recovery of plastics is to identify and use the optimum combination of options , underpinned by continuing innovation in process , product and recovery technologies in order to increase the resource efficiency of products throughout their whole life-cycle . ML05 OPTIMISAZION OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS IN THE RECYCLING OF POLYCONDENSATION POLYMERS F.P. LA MANTIA , R. SCAFFARO Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali Università di Palermo , Viale delle Scienze , 90128 , Palermo , Italy Mechanical recycling of polymers is a very complex and difficult process because repetitive melt processing can lead to severe degradation of these materials with subsequent deterioration of all the properties . For condensation polymers , the degradation rate is much faster in the presence of water that induces depolymerization reactions , having also a synergistic effect with thermomechanical degradation and exalting the loss of properties . Indeed , a careful drying prior to processing can drastically reduce the degradation phenomena but increasing the complexity of the process and its cost . The aim of this work is to study the effect of the reprocessing of some polycondensation polymers with and in absence of water . Moreover , the possibility to process wet polymer in the presence of proper stabilisers to avoid the drying step has been studied too . The materials chosen for the study have been polyamide 6 , polycarbonate and polyethyleneterephtalate . The results indicate that for the three different systems considered , the wet processing causes , as expected , a strong reduction of the mechanical properties and of the molecular weight , as evidenced by rheological and thermal measurements . If a degassing stage is added to the processing apparatus , a certain improvement of the properties is observed . This can be explained in terms of humidity removing with consequent reduction of the hydrolytic chain scission . When nitrogen flow is added to the degassing , both humidity and oxygen are practically eliminated from the system , and a further improvement of the properties is observed . This can be explained with the further reduction of the humidity but it also suggests that degradation mechanism involves reactions . The presence small amounts ( 500 ppm ) of a particular antioxidant has a positive effect in all the cases . In particular , the adding of antioxidant can substitute the drying stage as it is able to protect the macromolecules from hydrolysis . This behaviour can be explained considering that this antioxidant is more prone to hydrolysis than the polymer , thus removing the water from the melt and decreasing the degradation rate . Such consideration has been proved using different antioxidants with different tendency to hydrolysis : using antioxidants with theoretical reduced hydrolysis tendency caused a parallel reduction of the protection with consequent loss of properties . The positive effect of the presence of the antioxidant has been also verified for several reprocessing steps ( up to five ) . The results indicate that the presence of the antioxidant still have positive effects also after several recycling operation . It can be concluded that the mechanical recycling of condensation polymers can be effectuated with practically any loss of properties if an adequate removal of humidity from the system is performed . A valid alternative to the complex and expensive pre-drying operation can be the adding of antioxidants that undergo hydrolysis in vice of the polymers . ML06 FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING OF PLASTICS IN JAPAN A.OKUWAKI Tohoku University , Graduate School of Environmental Studies ,07 Aoba , Sendai , 980-8579 Various commercial plants for feedstock recycling of waste plastics have started up in Japan . In 1999 , only Niigata liquefaction plant was operated . Now they are liquefaction at Sapporo , and Mikasa , Blast Furnace application by NKK , Coke Oven application by Nippon Steel Corp. , Gasification by EBARA-UBE , and Glycolysis of PET bottles by Teijin . Separated PET bottles are now used as raw material for polyester fibers , 30,000 t/y in capacity from April , 2002 , and the two commercial plants for the Bottle to Bottle recycling are under construction for the first time in the world . Clearly this is related to the practical implementation of the Containers and Packaging Recycling Law carried out in 1997 for PET bottles and in 2000 for the other plastics . This law affords allocating the cost for feedstock recycling of waste plastics separated only in homes . It has created attractive markets and thus , they say that the separated waste plastics are even in short supply in Japan . Recovery of PET bottles increases successfully since 1997 , but that of plastics increases dramatically since 2000 when the law has carried out . On the other hand , their cost for recycling decreases gradually . At present , their recycling fees are quite expensive compared to the cost for treatment of industrial waste plastics . However , it is expected that the cost will continue to drop . This trend suggests that the active competitions among various techniques proceed including the improvement of collection system . This situation creates big chances for the world recycling technologies in the Japanese market and refine necessarily both techniques and logistic systems . The Home Appliances Recycling Law came into full force in April 2001 is to be revised within a few years . In such process , they say , not only the recycling of their plastics cases , but also that of printed circuit boards are introduced to elevate the recycling degree . In addition , the Law for Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles has passed through the Parliament , July 2002 . They say , an average cost per car will be 20,000 Yen , namely 151Euro . Clearly this law should proceed the recycling of automotive shredder residue . These environmental policy of Japanese Government are sure to promote more the recycling of waste plastics in Japan

Output

Answer

Differential scanning calorimetry

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Differential scanning calorimetry

Slot Filling - T-REx

1 / 20

Input

Jerome Kersey [SEP] member of sports team

Output

Answer

Portland Trail Blazers

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Jerome Kersey

The Trail Blazers selected Kersey in the second round of the 1984 NBA draft from Longwood University (then Longwood College) in Farmville, Virginia. He was a member of the Spurs during their 1999 NBA Finals victory over the New York Knicks. Following his playing career, Kersey worked with his former Portland teammate and then-head coach of the Milwaukee Bucks Terry Porter as an assistant in 2005. Kersey died from a pulmonary embolism caused by a blood clot at his home in Tualatin, Oregon, on February 18, 2015.


Answer

Portland Blazers


Answer

Golden State Warriors

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Jerome Kersey

The Trail Blazers selected Kersey in the second round of the 1984 NBA draft from Longwood University (then Longwood College) in Farmville, Virginia. He was a member of the Spurs during their 1999 NBA Finals victory over the New York Knicks. Following his playing career, Kersey worked with his former Portland teammate and then-head coach of the Milwaukee Bucks Terry Porter as an assistant in 2005. Kersey died from a pulmonary embolism caused by a blood clot at his home in Tualatin, Oregon, on February 18, 2015.


Answer

Philadelphia Warriors


Answer

San Francisco Warriors


Answer

Dub Nation


Answer

Los Angeles Lakers

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Jerome Kersey

The Trail Blazers selected Kersey in the second round of the 1984 NBA draft from Longwood University (then Longwood College) in Farmville, Virginia. He was a member of the Spurs during their 1999 NBA Finals victory over the New York Knicks. Following his playing career, Kersey worked with his former Portland teammate and then-head coach of the Milwaukee Bucks Terry Porter as an assistant in 2005. Kersey died from a pulmonary embolism caused by a blood clot at his home in Tualatin, Oregon, on February 18, 2015.


Answer

The Lake Show


Answer

L.A. Lakers


Answer

Purple and Gold


Answer

LA Lakers


Answer

Minneapolis Lakers


Answer

Seattle SuperSonics

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Jerome Kersey

The Trail Blazers selected Kersey in the second round of the 1984 NBA draft from Longwood University (then Longwood College) in Farmville, Virginia. He was a member of the Spurs during their 1999 NBA Finals victory over the New York Knicks. Following his playing career, Kersey worked with his former Portland teammate and then-head coach of the Milwaukee Bucks Terry Porter as an assistant in 2005. Kersey died from a pulmonary embolism caused by a blood clot at his home in Tualatin, Oregon, on February 18, 2015.


Answer

Sonics


Answer

San Antonio Spurs

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Jerome Kersey

The Trail Blazers selected Kersey in the second round of the 1984 NBA draft from Longwood University (then Longwood College) in Farmville, Virginia. He was a member of the Spurs during their 1999 NBA Finals victory over the New York Knicks. Following his playing career, Kersey worked with his former Portland teammate and then-head coach of the Milwaukee Bucks Terry Porter as an assistant in 2005. Kersey died from a pulmonary embolism caused by a blood clot at his home in Tualatin, Oregon, on February 18, 2015.


Answer

Dallas Chaparrals


Answer

Texas Chaparrals


Answer

Milwaukee Bucks

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Jerome Kersey

The Trail Blazers selected Kersey in the second round of the 1984 NBA draft from Longwood University (then Longwood College) in Farmville, Virginia. He was a member of the Spurs during their 1999 NBA Finals victory over the New York Knicks. Following his playing career, Kersey worked with his former Portland teammate and then-head coach of the Milwaukee Bucks Terry Porter as an assistant in 2005. Kersey died from a pulmonary embolism caused by a blood clot at his home in Tualatin, Oregon, on February 18, 2015.

Input

Kepulauan Sula [SEP] country

Output

Answer

Indonesia

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Buru babirusa

The Buru babirusa ("Babyrousa babyrussa") is a wild pig-like animal native to the Indonesian islands of Buru, the two Sula Islands of Mangole and Taliabu. It is also known as the Moluccan babirusa, golden babirusa or hairy babirusa. Traditionally, this relatively small species included the other babirusas as subspecies, but it has been recommended treating them as separate species based on differences in their morphology. As also suggested by its alternative common names, the Buru Babirusa has relatively long thick, gold-brown body-hair – a feature not shared by the other extant babirusas.


Answer

Indonesia

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Banggai cuscus

It is a species of cuscus, a type of possum. It is found in the Peleng and Sula Islands of Indonesia.


Answer

🇮🇩


Answer

id


Answer

Republic of Indonesia


Answer

IDN


Answer

ID


Answer

INA

Input

Clasterosphaeria [SEP] taxon rank

Output

Answer

genus

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Clasterosphaeria

Clasterosphaeria is a genus of fungi in the family Magnaporthaceae.


Answer

genus (zoology)


Answer

monospecies genus

Input

Phthinosaurus [SEP] taxon rank

Output

Answer

genus

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Phthinosaurus

Phthinosaurus is an extinct genus of therapsids from the Middle Permian of Russia. The type species Phthinosaurus borrisiaki was named by Soviet paleontologist Ivan Yefremov in 1940 on the basis of an isolated lower jaw. Because this jaw provides few distinguishing characteristics, the evolutionary relationships of "Phthinosaurus" are poorly known. Yefremov named the family Phthinosuchidae in 1954 to include "Phthinosaurus" and the newly named "Phthinosuchus", which was described on the basis of a crushed partial skull. American paleontologist Everett C. Olson placed both of these therapsids in the larger infraorder Phthinosuchia in 1961. In 1974 Leonid Tatarinov named the family Phthinosauridae to include "Phthinosaurus" alone, retaining "Phthinosuchus" within Phthinosuchidae.


Answer

genus (zoology)


Answer

monospecies genus

Input

Sherman's Way [SEP] genre

Output

Answer

comedy-drama

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Sherman's Way

Sherman's Way is a comedy-drama independent film starring James LeGros, Enrico Colantoni, Lacey Chabert, Donna Murphy, Brooke Nevin, and Michael Shulman. The film was directed by Craig Saavedra, written by Thomas R. Nance, and produced by Starry Night Entertainment. "Sherman's Way" completed principal photography in 2007 and was shot in Manhattan, New York, Clear Lake, California, and Los Angeles, California.


Answer

comedic drama


Answer

Comedy-drama, dramedy


Answer

dramedy


Answer

seriocomedy


Answer

tragicomedy


Answer

comedy drama


Answer

dramatic comedy

Input

Adetus alboapicalis [SEP] taxon rank

Output

Answer

species

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Adetus alboapicalis

Adetus alboapicalis is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae. It was described by Breuning in 1943.


Answer

sp.

Input

Oleksandr Vorobiov [SEP] place of birth

Output

Answer

Kamianske

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Oleksandr Vorobiov

Oleksandr Vorobiov (born October 5, 1984 in Dniprodzerzhynsk) is a Ukrainian gymnast. He won a bronze medal on rings at the 2008 Summer Olympics.


Answer

Kamyanske


Answer

Dniprodzerzhynsk


Answer

Dneprodzerzhinsk

Input

3C 452 [SEP] instance of

Output

Answer

Seyfert galaxy

Provenance

Wikipedia article: 3C 452

3C 452 is a Seyfert galaxy located in the constellation Lacerta.


Answer

Seyfert galaxies

Input

Bernard Ford [SEP] place of birth

Output

Answer

Birmingham

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Bernard Ford

Bernard Ford, MBE, (born in Birmingham) is an English former ice dancer. With partner Diane Towler, he is a four-time (1966–1969) World, European, and British champion. He is also a World Professional ice dancing champion. He later became a coach and choreographer.


Answer

Birmingham, West Midlands


Answer

Birmingham, England

Input

Čađavica [SEP] country

Output

Answer

Croatia

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Čađavica, Croatia

Čađavica is a village and municipality in Croatia in the Virovitica–Podravina County. It has a population of 2,009 (2011 census), of which 90% are Croats. It is situated 14 kilometers NE of Slatina.


Answer

Republic of Croatia


Answer

hr


Answer

HR


Answer

HRV


Answer

CRO


Answer

🇭🇷

Input

Bruce Flegg [SEP] place of birth

Output

Answer

Sydney

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Bruce Flegg

In October 2014, the LNP State Executive refused to support Dr Flegg's party preselection as a candidate for the January 2015 election, instead choosing to replace him with former AMA President Dr. Christian Rowan. He remained an LNP Member of Parliament until the January 2015 election when he did not re-contest his seat. There was some speculation that Newman could transfer from his marginal seat of Ashgrove to Moggill after Flegg was denied preselection. Moggill was the safest LNP seat in Brisbane; at the time, the LNP sat on a majority of 23.9 percent. However, Newman ruled out a transfer.


Answer

Sydney, Australia


Answer

Sydney, New South Wales, Australia


Answer

Sydney, NSW


Answer

Sydney, New South Wales


Answer

Sydney, NSW, Australia

Input

Yermak Timofeyevich [SEP] place of birth

Output

Answer

Grand Duchy of Moscow

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Chimgi-Tura

After the Cossack ataman Yermak from Muscovy conquered the Siberian Khanate in the 1580s, the city of Chimgi-Tura was abandoned or burned. In 1586 the Russian fort Tyumen was built nearby. Modern Tyumen, one of the centres of the Russian oil industry, covers the site where Chimgi-Tura used to stand.


Answer

Muscovy


Answer

Grand Principality of Moscow

Input

Trypeta ludens [SEP] taxon rank

Output

Answer

species

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Trypeta ludens

Trypeta ludens is a species of tephritid or fruit flies in the genus "Trypeta" of the family Tephritidae.


Answer

sp.

Input

El Harrouch District [SEP] country

Output

Answer

Algeria

Provenance

Wikipedia article: El Harrouch District

El Harrouch is a district in Skikda Province, Algeria. It is one of the 3 districts in the province that do not lie on the Mediterranean Sea. It was named after its capital, El Harrouch.


Answer

🇩🇿


Answer

dz


Answer

People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria


Answer

ALG

Input

The Art of Rolling [SEP] performer

Output

Answer

The Blue Van

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Art of Rolling

The Art of Rolling is the debut album by the Danish blues rock group The Blue Van. Released in April 2005 under TVT Records.

Input

Niemur River [SEP] country

Output

Answer

Australia

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Niemur River

Niemur River, a perennial stream of the Murray catchment and part of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the western Riverina region of south western New South Wales, Australia.


Answer

au


Answer

Commonwealth of Australia


Answer

British Colony of Australia


Answer

AU


Answer

Straya


Answer

🇦🇺


Answer

AUS

Input

Eye Alaska [SEP] record label

Output

Answer

Fearless Records

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Yellow & Elephant

Yellow & Elephant is the debut EP by American Alternative band Eye Alaska, released on June 17, 2008 through Fearless Records.

Input

Ziersdorf [SEP] located in the administrative territorial entity

Output

Answer

Hollabrunn District

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Ziersdorf

Ziersdorf is a town in the district of Hollabrunn in Lower Austria, Austria.

Input

Shpola Raion [SEP] country

Output

Answer

Ukraine

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Shpola Raion

Shpola Raion is a raion (district) of Cherkasy Oblast, central Ukraine. Its administrative centre is located at the town of Shpola. Population:


Answer

UA


Answer

ua


Answer

🇺🇦


Answer

UKR


Answer

Ukrainia

Input

Women's Party [SEP] instance of

Output

Answer

political party

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Women's Party (UK)

The Women's Party was a minor political party in the United Kingdom. It was founded by Christabel and Emmeline Pankhurst when they dissolved the Women's Social and Political Union in November 1917. The party ran on the slogan ‘Victory, National Security and Progress’, in an effort to conflate winning of the war with the women's cause.


Answer

party (politics)


Answer

parties (politics)


Answer

parties in politics


Answer

political parties


Answer

party in politics


Answer

party


Answer

parties

Slot Filling - Zero Shot RE

1 / 20

Input

Elmer George [SEP] spouse

Output

Answer

Mari Hulman George

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Elmer George

Elmer George was married to Mari Hulman George, daughter of Tony Hulman, owner of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Elmer and Mari had three daughters and one son, Tony George, founder of the Indy Racing League, and Ex-CEO of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Elmer had two children from a previous marriage, Joseph F. George and Carolyn Coffey.

Input

Kheta River [SEP] mouth of the watercourse

Output

Answer

Khatanga River

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Kheta River

Kheta River () is a river in Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia, left composite of the Khatanga River. The river is long. The area of its drainage basin is . The Kheta is formed by the confluence of the Ayan and Ayakli Rivers, both of which originate in the Putoran plateau. The Kheta freezes up in late September or early October and breaks up in late May or the first half of June. Its main tributaries are the Boyarka, Maimecha, and Boganida Rivers.

Input

Boone River [SEP] mouth of the watercourse

Output

Answer

Des Moines River

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Boone River

The Boone River is a tributary of the Des Moines River in north-central Iowa in the United States. It is long and drains an area of . Via the Des Moines River, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River.

Input

Shayne Gostisbehere [SEP] drafted by

Output

Answer

Philadelphia Flyers

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Shayne Gostisbehere

Shayne Gostisbehere (born April 20, 1993) is an American professional ice hockey defenseman for the Philadelphia Flyers of the National Hockey League (NHL). He is known by his nickname, "Ghost" or "Ghost Bear."

Input

Sartell Bridge [SEP] crosses

Output

Answer

Mississippi River

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Sartell Bridge

The Sartell Bridge is a bridge that spans the Mississippi River in the city of Sartell in the U.S. state of Minnesota. The bridge also spans a roadway, property belonging to the Sartell paper mill, and a rail line on the east side of the river.

Input

Jan Koster [SEP] employer

Output

Answer

University of Groningen

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Jan Koster

Jan Koster (born 8 July 1945 in Delft) is a Dutch linguist and professor emeritus at the University of Groningen.

Input

Lawless Range [SEP] production company

Output

Answer

Republic Pictures

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Lawless Range

Lawless Range is a 1935 American Western film released by Republic Pictures, directed by Robert N. Bradbury and starring John Wayne. He appears as a "singing cowboy" in the film, with his singing voice dubbed by Glenn Strange, who later found lasting film fame himself as Frankenstein's Monster.

Input

Ed Fries [SEP] employer

Output

Answer

Microsoft

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Ed Fries

Ed Fries ( "freeze") is an American video game programmer and entrepreneur who was the vice president of game publishing at Microsoft during much of the Xbox's life-cycle.

Input

Fu Pi [SEP] spouse

Output

Answer

Empress Yang

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Fu Pi

In fall 386, the Western Yan ruler Murong Yong, whose people had abandoned the Guanzhong region to head east, trying to return to their home land, requested Fu Pi to grant permission to let them through. Fu Pi refused and tried to intercept them, but suffered a major defeat, in which Wang Yong and the major general Juqu Jushizi (沮渠俱石子) were killed, and most of Fu Pi's officials and his wife Empress Yang were captured. The only general under Fu Pi who still had a strong army remaining was his cousin Fu Zuan (苻纂) the Prince of Donghai, who remained at Jinyang, but Fu Pi was suspicious of Fu Zuan's intentions and therefore did not dare to return to Jinyang, but instead headed south, wanting to make a surprise attack on Luoyang, then held by Jin. The Jin general Feng Gai (馮該) intercepted him and killed him in battle. His sons Fu Ning (苻寧) the crown prince and Fu Shou (苻壽) the Prince of Changle were captured by Jin forces but pardoned and given to their uncle Fu Hong (苻宏) -- Fu Jiān's crown prince, who had surrendered to Jin earlier. His sons Fu Yi (苻懿) the Prince of Bohai and Fu Chang (苻昶) the Prince of Jibei were escorted by an official to his distant nephew Fu Deng the Prince of Nan'an, who initially proposed making Fu Yi the emperor, but after his subordinates recommended that he take the throne himself, did so.

Input

Lek Yuen Bridge [SEP] crosses

Output

Answer

Shing Mun River

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Lek Yuen Bridge

Lek Yuen Bridge () is a pedestrian footbridge in Sha Tin, Sha Tin New Town, New Territories, Hong Kong, across the Shing Mun River.

Input

Bishop Asbury Cottage [SEP] occupant

Output

Answer

Francis Asbury

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Bishop Asbury Cottage

Bishop Asbury Cottage () is a 17th-century cottage on Newton Road, Great Barr, England, known for being the boyhood home of Francis Asbury (1745 – 1816), one of the first two bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church (now The United Methodist Church) in the United States. It is now a museum in his memory.

Input

William W. Freehling [SEP] employer

Output

Answer

University of Kentucky

Provenance

Wikipedia article: William W. Freehling

William W. Freehling (born 1935) is an American historian, and Singletary Professor of the Humanities Emeritus at the University of Kentucky. Freehling has written several well-respected works on the American South during the antebellum era and on the American Civil War, most notably "Prelude to Civil War: The Nullification Controversy in South Carolina", which won the 1967 Bancroft Prize, and a two-volume work on the antebellum period, "Road to Disunion".

Input

USA-71 [SEP] time of spacecraft launch

Output

Answer

4 July 1991

Provenance

Wikipedia article: USA-71

USA-71 was launched at 02:32:00 UTC on 4 July 1991, atop a Delta II carrier rocket, flight number D206, flying in the 7925-9.5 configuration. The rocket launched from Launch Complex 17A at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, and placed USA-71 into a transfer orbit. The satellite raised itself into medium Earth orbit using a Star-37XFP apogee motor.

Input

Progress M-66 [SEP] time of spacecraft launch

Output

Answer

10 February 2009

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Progress M-66

Progress M-66 was launched at 05:49 GMT on 10 February 2009, by a Soyuz-U carrier rocket flying from Site 31/6 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. This was the first time Site 31 had been used for a Progress launch since Progress M-15 in 1992. The spacecraft docked with the "Pirs" module of the ISS at 07:18 GMT on 13 February. It undocked at 15:18 on 6 May, to make way for Progress M-02M. It was deorbited at 14:28:30 on 18 May following twelve days of free flight, during which it conducted experiments as part of the Plazma-Progress programme. Any debris from Progress M-66 that survived re-entry landed in the Pacific Ocean at around 15:14:45 GMT.

Input

Katie Trumpener [SEP] employer

Output

Answer

Yale University

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Katie Trumpener

Katie Trumpener (* 1961) is the Emily Sanford Professor of Comparative Literature and English at Yale University. She received a B.A. in English from the University of Alberta in 1982, an A.M. in English and American Literature from Harvard University in 1983, and a Ph.D. in Comparative Literature from Stanford University in 1990. Prior to joining the faculty at Yale in 2002, Trumpener taught at the University of Chicago from 1990. At Yale, Trumpener has served as Acting Director of the Whitney Humanities Center and the Director of Graduate Studies in Comparative Literature. She also serves on the Editorial Committee of Public Culture and the Editorial Boards of New German Critique and Arcade.

Input

John Doerr [SEP] employer

Output

Answer

Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers

Provenance

Wikipedia article: John Doerr

L. John Doerr (born June 29, 1951) is an American investor and venture capitalist at Kleiner Perkins in Menlo Park, California. In February 2009, Doerr was appointed a member of the President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board to provide the President and his administration with advice and counsel in trying to fix America's economic downturn. In 2017, related to Forbes, he was recognized the 40th Richest In Tech. , "Forbes" ranked Doerr as the 105th richest person in the United States and the 303rd richest person in the world, with a net worth of US$ 7.5 billion as of February 16, 2018. Doerr is the author of "Measure What Matters," a book about goal-setting. For 2019, his net worth increased up to $7.7 billion, being the 215th in the Billionaires 2019 list and the 56th in The Midas List: Top Tech Investors 2019.

Input

Pekka Rinne [SEP] drafted by

Output

Answer

Nashville Predators

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Pekka Rinne

Pekka Rinne (; born 3 November 1982) is a Finnish professional hockey goaltender for the Nashville Predators of the National Hockey League (NHL). Drafted by the Predators in the 2004 NHL Entry Draft, Rinne became their starting goaltender during the 2008–09 season and quickly established himself as one of the NHL's best goaltenders. He was a Vezina Trophy finalist as the NHL's top regular season goaltender in 2011, 2012 and 2015 before winning the award in 2018.

Input

Kounotori 5 [SEP] time of spacecraft launch

Output

Answer

19 August 2015

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Kounotori 5

Kounotori 5 was successfully launched with a H-IIB carrier rocket flying from pad 2 of the Yoshinobu Launch Complex at Tanegashima at 11:50:49 UTC on 19 August 2015. Communication and three-axis attitude controls were established shortly after the launch. Phase Maneuver was performed by 19:25 UTC on August 20, and the first Height Adjustment Maneuver by 17:55 UTC on August 22. The second and third Height Adjustment Maneuver were performed by 03:07 and 06:12 UTC on August 24, respectively.

Input

Four Winds Field at Coveleski Stadium [SEP] occupant

Output

Answer

South Bend Cubs

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Four Winds Field at Coveleski Stadium

Four Winds Field at Coveleski Stadium is a baseball stadium in South Bend, Indiana, home to the South Bend Cubs, a minor league baseball team which plays in the Class-A Midwest League. The stadium opened in 1987, and its open concourse is considered the template for many later minor league ball parks built in the 1990s. It has a capacity of 5,000 spectators.

Input

Cann River [SEP] mouth of the watercourse

Output

Answer

Bass Strait

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Cann River

The Cann River rises southwest of Granite Mountain in remote country on the eastern boundary of the Errinundra National Park and flows generally east, then south, then east, then south through the western edge of the Coopracambra National Park and through the Croajingolong National Park, joined by seventeen minor tributaries before reaching its mouth with Bass Strait, at the Tamboon Inlet in the Shire of East Gippsland. The river descends over its course.

Open Domain QA - Natural Questions

1 / 20

Input

where does cleavage of the peptide bond by chymotrypsin occur

Output

Answer

digestive systems

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Chymotrypsin

"In vivo", chymotrypsin is a proteolytic enzyme (serine protease) acting in the digestive systems of many organisms. It facilitates the cleavage of peptide bonds by a hydrolysis reaction, which despite being thermodynamically favorable, occurs extremely slowly in the absence of a catalyst. The main substrates of chymotrypsin are peptide bonds in which the amino acid N-terminal to the bond is a tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, or leucine. Like many proteases, chymotrypsin also hydrolyses amide bonds "in vitro", a virtue that enabled the use of substrate analogs such as N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine p-nitrophenyl amide for enzyme assays.


Answer

where the side - chain of the amino acid N - terminal to the scissile amide bond ( the P position ) is a large hydrophobic amino acid ( tyrosine , tryptophan , and phenylalanine )


Answer

positions 14 - 15 , 146 - 147 and 148 - 149


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Chymotrypsin

Chymotrypsin (, chymotrypsins A and B, alpha-chymar ophth, avazyme, chymar, chymotest, enzeon, quimar, quimotrase, alpha-chymar, alpha-chymotrypsin A, alpha-chymotrypsin) is a digestive enzyme component of pancreatic juice acting in the duodenum, where it performs proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides. Chymotrypsin preferentially cleaves peptide amide bonds where the side chain of the amino acid C-terminal to the scissile amide bond (the P position) is a large hydrophobic amino acid (tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine). These amino acids contain an aromatic ring in their side chain that fits into a hydrophobic pocket (the S position) of the enzyme. It is activated in the presence of trypsin. The hydrophobic and shape complementarity between the peptide substrate P side chain and the enzyme S binding cavity accounts for the substrate specificity of this enzyme. Chymotrypsin also hydrolyzes other amide bonds in peptides at slower rates, particularly those containing leucine and methionine at the P position.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Chymotrypsin

Chymotrypsin


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Chymotrypsin

"In vivo", chymotrypsin is a proteolytic enzyme (serine protease) acting in the digestive systems of many organisms. It facilitates the cleavage of peptide bonds by a hydrolysis reaction, which despite being thermodynamically favorable, occurs extremely slowly in the absence of a catalyst. The main substrates of chymotrypsin are peptide bonds in which the amino acid N-terminal to the bond is a tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, or leucine. Like many proteases, chymotrypsin also hydrolyses amide bonds "in vitro", a virtue that enabled the use of substrate analogs such as N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine p-nitrophenyl amide for enzyme assays.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Chymotrypsin

Chymotrypsin is synthesized in the pancreas by protein biosynthesis as a precursor called chymotrypsinogen that is enzymatically inactive. Trypsin activates chymotrypsinogen by cleaving peptidic bonds in positions Arg15 - Ile16 and produces π-chymotrypsin. In turn, aminic group (-NH3) of the Ile16 residue interacts with the side chain of Glu194, producing the "oxyanion hole" and the hydrophobic "S1 pocket". Moreover, chymotrypsin induces its own activation by cleaving in positions 14-15, 146-147, and 148-149, producing α-chymotrypsin (which is more active and stable than π-chymotrypsin). The resulting molecule is a three-polypeptide molecule interconnected via disulfide bonds.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Chymotrypsin

"In vivo", chymotrypsin is a proteolytic enzyme (serine protease) acting in the digestive systems of many organisms. It facilitates the cleavage of peptide bonds by a hydrolysis reaction, which despite being thermodynamically favorable, occurs extremely slowly in the absence of a catalyst. The main substrates of chymotrypsin are peptide bonds in which the amino acid N-terminal to the bond is a tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, or leucine. Like many proteases, chymotrypsin also hydrolyses amide bonds "in vitro", a virtue that enabled the use of substrate analogs such as N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine p-nitrophenyl amide for enzyme assays.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Chymotrypsinogen

Chymotrypsinogen is an inactive precursor (zymogen) of chymotrypsin, a digestive enzyme which breaks proteins down into smaller peptides. Chymotrypsinogen is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 245 amino acid residues. It is synthesized in the acinar cells of the pancreas and stored inside membrane-bounded granules at the apex of the acinar cell. Release of the granules from the cell is stimulated by either a hormonal signal or a nerve impulse, and the granules spill into a duct leading into the duodenum.

Input

when is the next deadpool movie being released

Output

Answer

May 18 , 2018

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Deadpool 2

"Deadpool 2" premiered at Leicester Square in London on May 10, 2018. It was released in the United States on May 18, 2018, having been previously scheduled for release on June 1 of that year.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Deadpool 2

"Deadpool 2" premiered at Leicester Square in London on May 10, 2018. It was released in the United States on May 18, 2018, having been previously scheduled for release on June 1 of that year.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Deadpool 2

"Deadpool 2" was released in the United States on May 18, 2018 by 20th Century Fox. It grossed over $785 million worldwide, becoming the ninth-highest-grossing film of 2018, as well as the highest-grossing R-rated film of all time and the highest-grossing "X-Men" film of all time. The film received positive reviews from critics, who praised its humor, acting (particularly Reynolds, Brolin, and Beetz's performances), story, and action sequences. Some critics considered it better than the first film, although others criticized its tone and script. A PG-13 rated version of the film, titled "Once Upon a Deadpool", released on December 12, 2018, to mixed reviews.

Input

what was the first capital city of australia

Output

Answer

Melbourne

Provenance

Wikipedia article: List of Australian capital cities

There are eight capital cities in Australia, each of which functions as the seat of government for the state or territory in which it is located. One of these, Canberra, is also the national capital. (The national capital was initially Melbourne, following the 1901 Federation of Australia. In 1927, the seat of national government was moved to the newly created city of Canberra.)


Answer

New South Wales


Answer

Sydney


Provenance

Wikipedia article: List of Australian capital cities

There are eight capital cities in Australia, each of which functions as the seat of government for the state or territory in which it is located. One of these, Canberra, is also the national capital. (The national capital was initially Melbourne, following the 1901 Federation of Australia. In 1927, the seat of national government was moved to the newly created city of Canberra.)


Provenance

Wikipedia article: History of Australia (190145)

The Federal Capital Territory (later renamed the Australian Capital Territory) was formed in 1911 as the location for the future federal capital of Canberra. Melbourne was the temporary seat of government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was being constructed. The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the federal parliament in 1911.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: List of Australian capital cities

There are eight capital cities in Australia, each of which functions as the seat of government for the state or territory in which it is located. One of these, Canberra, is also the national capital. (The national capital was initially Melbourne, following the 1901 Federation of Australia. In 1927, the seat of national government was moved to the newly created city of Canberra.)

Input

who sings stop listen what's that sound

Output

Answer

Buffalo Springfield

Provenance

Wikipedia article: For What It's Worth

"For What It's Worth (Stop, Hey What's That Sound)" (often referred to as simply "For What It's Worth") is a song written by Stephen Stills. Performed by Buffalo Springfield, it was recorded on December 5, 1966; released as a single on Atco Records on December 23, 1966; and peaked at No. 7 on the "Billboard" Hot 100 chart.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: For What It's Worth

For What It's Worth


Provenance

Wikipedia article: For What It's Worth

"For What It's Worth (Stop, Hey What's That Sound)" (often referred to as simply "For What It's Worth") is a song written by Stephen Stills. Performed by Buffalo Springfield, it was recorded on December 5, 1966; released as a single on Atco Records on December 23, 1966; and peaked at No. 7 on the "Billboard" Hot 100 chart.

Input

who spoke the words ich bin ein berliner

Output

Answer

U.S. President John F. Kennedy

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Ich bin ein Berliner

""Ich bin ein Berliner"" (, "I am a Berliner") is a well-known quote from a speech by United States President John F. Kennedy given on June 26, 1963, in West Berlin. It is widely regarded as the best-known speech of the Cold War and the most famous anti-communist speech. Kennedy aimed to underline the support of the United States for West Germany 22 months after Soviet-occupied East Germany erected the Berlin Wall to prevent mass emigration to the West. The message was aimed as much at the Soviets as it was at Berliners and was a clear statement of U.S. policy in the wake of the construction of the Berlin Wall. Another phrase in the speech was also spoken in German, ""Lasst sie nach Berlin kommen"" ("Let them come to Berlin"), addressed at those who claimed "we can work with the Communists", a remark at which Nikita Khrushchev scoffed only days later.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Ich bin ein Berliner

""Ich bin ein Berliner"" (, "I am a Berliner") is a well-known quote from a speech by United States President John F. Kennedy given on June 26, 1963, in West Berlin. It is widely regarded as the best-known speech of the Cold War and the most famous anti-communist speech. Kennedy aimed to underline the support of the United States for West Germany 22 months after Soviet-occupied East Germany erected the Berlin Wall to prevent mass emigration to the West. The message was aimed as much at the Soviets as it was at Berliners and was a clear statement of U.S. policy in the wake of the construction of the Berlin Wall. Another phrase in the speech was also spoken in German, ""Lasst sie nach Berlin kommen"" ("Let them come to Berlin"), addressed at those who claimed "we can work with the Communists", a remark at which Nikita Khrushchev scoffed only days later.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Ich bin ein Berliner

""Ich bin ein Berliner"" (, "I am a Berliner") is a well-known quote from a speech by United States President John F. Kennedy given on June 26, 1963, in West Berlin. It is widely regarded as the best-known speech of the Cold War and the most famous anti-communist speech. Kennedy aimed to underline the support of the United States for West Germany 22 months after Soviet-occupied East Germany erected the Berlin Wall to prevent mass emigration to the West. The message was aimed as much at the Soviets as it was at Berliners and was a clear statement of U.S. policy in the wake of the construction of the Berlin Wall. Another phrase in the speech was also spoken in German, ""Lasst sie nach Berlin kommen"" ("Let them come to Berlin"), addressed at those who claimed "we can work with the Communists", a remark at which Nikita Khrushchev scoffed only days later.

Input

who kidnapped ben in the deep end of the ocean

Output

Answer

Cecil Lockhart

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Deep End of the Ocean

Nine years later a young boy named Sam asks Beth if she needs the lawn mowed. Beth suspects that this boy who lives with his "father" two blocks away is in fact her lost son, and while Sam mows the lawn, she takes photographs of him to show to her husband and teenage son, who then says that he suspected the boy's true identity all along. The parents contact Detective Candy Bliss who pops in to offer wise, albeit often cryptic and conflicting, advice to Beth. It is learned that at the reunion in Chicago, the celebrity alumna Cecil Lockhart kidnapped Ben, renamed him Sam, and raised him as her own child until she was committed to a mental hospital, leaving Sam to be raised in a house only two blocks from the Cappadoras, by his adoptive father, the sensitive and intellectual George Karras.


Answer

the celebrity alumna Cecil Lockhart

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Deep End of the Ocean

Nine years later a young boy named Sam asks Beth if she needs the lawn mowed. Beth suspects that this boy who lives with his "father" two blocks away is in fact her lost son, and while Sam mows the lawn, she takes photographs of him to show to her husband and teenage son, who then says that he suspected the boy's true identity all along. The parents contact Detective Candy Bliss who pops in to offer wise, albeit often cryptic and conflicting, advice to Beth. It is learned that at the reunion in Chicago, the celebrity alumna Cecil Lockhart kidnapped Ben, renamed him Sam, and raised him as her own child until she was committed to a mental hospital, leaving Sam to be raised in a house only two blocks from the Cappadoras, by his adoptive father, the sensitive and intellectual George Karras.


Answer

celebrity alumna Cecil Lockhart

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Deep End of the Ocean

Nine years later a young boy named Sam asks Beth if she needs the lawn mowed. Beth suspects that this boy who lives with his "father" two blocks away is in fact her lost son, and while Sam mows the lawn, she takes photographs of him to show to her husband and teenage son, who then says that he suspected the boy's true identity all along. The parents contact Detective Candy Bliss who pops in to offer wise, albeit often cryptic and conflicting, advice to Beth. It is learned that at the reunion in Chicago, the celebrity alumna Cecil Lockhart kidnapped Ben, renamed him Sam, and raised him as her own child until she was committed to a mental hospital, leaving Sam to be raised in a house only two blocks from the Cappadoras, by his adoptive father, the sensitive and intellectual George Karras.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Deep End of the Ocean

Nine years later a young boy named Sam asks Beth if she needs the lawn mowed. Beth suspects that this boy who lives with his "father" two blocks away is in fact her lost son, and while Sam mows the lawn, she takes photographs of him to show to her husband and teenage son, who then says that he suspected the boy's true identity all along. The parents contact Detective Candy Bliss who pops in to offer wise, albeit often cryptic and conflicting, advice to Beth. It is learned that at the reunion in Chicago, the celebrity alumna Cecil Lockhart kidnapped Ben, renamed him Sam, and raised him as her own child until she was committed to a mental hospital, leaving Sam to be raised in a house only two blocks from the Cappadoras, by his adoptive father, the sensitive and intellectual George Karras.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Deep End of the Ocean

Nine years later a young boy named Sam asks Beth if she needs the lawn mowed. Beth suspects that this boy who lives with his "father" two blocks away is in fact her lost son, and while Sam mows the lawn, she takes photographs of him to show to her husband and teenage son, who then says that he suspected the boy's true identity all along. The parents contact Detective Candy Bliss who pops in to offer wise, albeit often cryptic and conflicting, advice to Beth. It is learned that at the reunion in Chicago, the celebrity alumna Cecil Lockhart kidnapped Ben, renamed him Sam, and raised him as her own child until she was committed to a mental hospital, leaving Sam to be raised in a house only two blocks from the Cappadoras, by his adoptive father, the sensitive and intellectual George Karras.

Input

where does prime rib come from on a cow

Output

Answer

the primal rib

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Standing rib roast

A standing rib roast, also known as prime rib, is a cut of beef from the primal rib, one of the nine primal cuts of beef. While the entire rib section comprises ribs six through 12, a standing rib roast may contain anywhere from two to seven ribs.


Answer

from the primal rib , one of the nine primal cuts of beef .


Answer

the primal rib , one of the nine primal cuts of beef


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Standing rib roast

A standing rib roast, also known as prime rib, is a cut of beef from the primal rib, one of the nine primal cuts of beef. While the entire rib section comprises ribs six through 12, a standing rib roast may contain anywhere from two to seven ribs.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Standing rib roast

A standing rib roast, also known as prime rib, is a cut of beef from the primal rib, one of the nine primal cuts of beef. While the entire rib section comprises ribs six through 12, a standing rib roast may contain anywhere from two to seven ribs.

Input

who directed the best years of our lives

Output

Answer

William Wyler

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Best Years of Our Lives

The Best Years of Our Lives (aka Glory for Me and Home Again) is a 1946 American drama film directed by William Wyler, and starring Myrna Loy, Fredric March, Dana Andrews, Teresa Wright, Virginia Mayo, and Harold Russell. The film is about three United States servicemen re-adjusting to civilian life after coming home from World War II. Samuel Goldwyn was inspired to produce a film about veterans after reading an August 7, 1944, article in "Time" about the difficulties experienced by men returning to civilian life. Goldwyn hired former war correspondent MacKinlay Kantor to write a screenplay. His work was first published as a novella, "Glory for Me", which Kantor wrote in blank verse. Robert E. Sherwood then adapted the novella as a screenplay.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Best Years of Our Lives

The Best Years of Our Lives (aka Glory for Me and Home Again) is a 1946 American drama film directed by William Wyler, and starring Myrna Loy, Fredric March, Dana Andrews, Teresa Wright, Virginia Mayo, and Harold Russell. The film is about three United States servicemen re-adjusting to civilian life after coming home from World War II. Samuel Goldwyn was inspired to produce a film about veterans after reading an August 7, 1944, article in "Time" about the difficulties experienced by men returning to civilian life. Goldwyn hired former war correspondent MacKinlay Kantor to write a screenplay. His work was first published as a novella, "Glory for Me", which Kantor wrote in blank verse. Robert E. Sherwood then adapted the novella as a screenplay.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Best Years of Our Lives

The Best Years of Our Lives (aka Glory for Me and Home Again) is a 1946 American drama film directed by William Wyler, and starring Myrna Loy, Fredric March, Dana Andrews, Teresa Wright, Virginia Mayo, and Harold Russell. The film is about three United States servicemen re-adjusting to civilian life after coming home from World War II. Samuel Goldwyn was inspired to produce a film about veterans after reading an August 7, 1944, article in "Time" about the difficulties experienced by men returning to civilian life. Goldwyn hired former war correspondent MacKinlay Kantor to write a screenplay. His work was first published as a novella, "Glory for Me", which Kantor wrote in blank verse. Robert E. Sherwood then adapted the novella as a screenplay.

Input

if a piece of music is perceived to have changed key then we say the piece has

Output

Answer

transposed

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Music theory

In traditional Western notation, the scale used for a composition is usually indicated by a key signature at the beginning to designate the pitches that make up that scale. As the music progresses, the pitches used may change and introduce a different scale. Music can be transposed from one scale to another for various purposes, often to accommodate the range of a vocalist. Such transposition raises or lowers the overall pitch range, but preserves the intervallic relationships of the original scale. For example, transposition from the key of C major to D major raises all pitches of the scale of C major equally by a whole tone. Since the interval relationships remain unchanged, transposition may be unnoticed by a listener, however other qualities may change noticeably because transposition changes the relationship of the overall pitch range compared to the range of the instruments or voices that perform the music. This often affects the music's overall sound, as well as having technical implications for the performers.


Answer

transposition

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Music theory

In traditional Western notation, the scale used for a composition is usually indicated by a key signature at the beginning to designate the pitches that make up that scale. As the music progresses, the pitches used may change and introduce a different scale. Music can be transposed from one scale to another for various purposes, often to accommodate the range of a vocalist. Such transposition raises or lowers the overall pitch range, but preserves the intervallic relationships of the original scale. For example, transposition from the key of C major to D major raises all pitches of the scale of C major equally by a whole tone. Since the interval relationships remain unchanged, transposition may be unnoticed by a listener, however other qualities may change noticeably because transposition changes the relationship of the overall pitch range compared to the range of the instruments or voices that perform the music. This often affects the music's overall sound, as well as having technical implications for the performers.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Music theory

Music theory


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Music theory

In traditional Western notation, the scale used for a composition is usually indicated by a key signature at the beginning to designate the pitches that make up that scale. As the music progresses, the pitches used may change and introduce a different scale. Music can be transposed from one scale to another for various purposes, often to accommodate the range of a vocalist. Such transposition raises or lowers the overall pitch range, but preserves the intervallic relationships of the original scale. For example, transposition from the key of C major to D major raises all pitches of the scale of C major equally by a whole tone. Since the interval relationships remain unchanged, transposition may be unnoticed by a listener, however other qualities may change noticeably because transposition changes the relationship of the overall pitch range compared to the range of the instruments or voices that perform the music. This often affects the music's overall sound, as well as having technical implications for the performers.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Transposition (music)

For example, one might transpose an entire piece of music into another key. Similarly, one might transpose a tone row or an unordered collection of pitches such as a chord so that it begins on another pitch.

Input

what is the legal age for marriage in australia

Output

Answer

18

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Marriage Act 1961 (Australia)

Part II (s.10-21) deals with the marriageable age and the marriage of minors. In the original 1961 Act, marriageable age was set at 16 for females and 18 for males. However, under section 12 of the original 1961 Act a female 14 or 15 years or a male 16 or 17 years could apply to the court for permission to marry. The marriageable age was equalised in 1991 by the "Sex Discrimination Amendment Act 1991", which raised the marriageable age of females to 18.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Marriage Act 1961 (Australia)

Marriage Act 1961 (Australia)


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Marriage Act 1961 (Australia)

Part II (s.10-21) deals with the marriageable age and the marriage of minors. In the original 1961 Act, marriageable age was set at 16 for females and 18 for males. However, under section 12 of the original 1961 Act a female 14 or 15 years or a male 16 or 17 years could apply to the court for permission to marry. The marriageable age was equalised in 1991 by the "Sex Discrimination Amendment Act 1991", which raised the marriageable age of females to 18.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Marriage in Australia

Marriage in Australia is regulated by the federal "Marriage Act 1961" (Cth) , which applies uniformly throughout Australia (including its external territories) to the exclusion of all state laws on the subject. Australian law recognises only monogamous marriages, being marriages of two people, including same-sex marriages, and does not recognise any other forms of union, including traditional Aboriginal marriages, polygamous marriages or concubinage. The marriage age for marriage in Australia is 18 years, but in "unusual and exceptional circumstances" a person aged 16 or 17 can marry with parental consent and authorisation by a court. A Notice of Intended Marriage is required to be lodged with the chosen marriage celebrant at least one month before the wedding. There is no citizenship or residency requirement for marriage in Australia, so that casual visitors can lawfully marry in Australia, provided that a domestic marriage celebrant is employed, the requisite notice given, and other domestic requirements satisfied.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Marriage Act 1961 (Australia)

Part II (s.10-21) deals with the marriageable age and the marriage of minors. In the original 1961 Act, marriageable age was set at 16 for females and 18 for males. However, under section 12 of the original 1961 Act a female 14 or 15 years or a male 16 or 17 years could apply to the court for permission to marry. The marriageable age was equalised in 1991 by the "Sex Discrimination Amendment Act 1991", which raised the marriageable age of females to 18.

Input

when did the nba start playing zone defense

Output

Answer

2002

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Zone defense

Zone defenses are common in international, college, and youth competition. In the National Basketball Association, zone defenses were prohibited until the 2001–2002 season, and most teams do not use them as a primary defensive strategy. The NBA has a defensive three-second violation rule, which makes it more difficult for teams to play zone, since such defenses usually position a player in the middle of the key to stop penetration. The Dallas Mavericks under coach Rick Carlisle are an example of an NBA team that have regularly used zone defenses.


Answer

the 2001 -- 2002 season


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Zone defense

Zone defense


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Zone defense

Zone defenses are common in international, college, and youth competition. In the National Basketball Association, zone defenses were prohibited until the 2001–2002 season, and most teams do not use them as a primary defensive strategy. The NBA has a defensive three-second violation rule, which makes it more difficult for teams to play zone, since such defenses usually position a player in the middle of the key to stop penetration. The Dallas Mavericks under coach Rick Carlisle are an example of an NBA team that have regularly used zone defenses.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Expansion of the National Basketball Association

The expansion of the National Basketball Association has happened several times in the league's history since it began play in 1946. Some of the most recent examples of the expansion of the NBA are the Charlotte Hornets in 1988, Miami Heat in 1989, Vancouver Grizzlies in 1995 (who later relocated to Memphis in 2001), and New Orleans Pelicans in 2002.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Zone defense

Zone defenses are common in international, college, and youth competition. In the National Basketball Association, zone defenses were prohibited until the 2001–2002 season, and most teams do not use them as a primary defensive strategy. The NBA has a defensive three-second violation rule, which makes it more difficult for teams to play zone, since such defenses usually position a player in the middle of the key to stop penetration. The Dallas Mavericks under coach Rick Carlisle are an example of an NBA team that have regularly used zone defenses.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Defensive three-second violation

A defensive three-second violation, also known as illegal defense, is a basketball rules infraction in the National Basketball Association (NBA) introduced in the 2001-2002 season. It is assessed when a member of the defending team spends more than three seconds in the free throw lane (also called the key, the 16-foot lane, or "in the paint") while not actively guarding an opponent. To be considered actively guarding, a defender must be within arm's length of an opponent and in a guarding position. A three-second count is suspended if:

Input

who sings i'll sleep when i'm dead

Output

Answer

Warren Zevon

Provenance

Wikipedia article: I'll Sleep When I'm Dead

BULLET::::- "I'll Sleep When I'm Dead", a song from "Warren Zevon"


Answer

Bon Jovi

Provenance

Wikipedia article: I'll Sleep When I'm Dead

BULLET::::- "I'll Sleep When I'm Dead" (Bon Jovi song)


Provenance

Wikipedia article: I'll Sleep When I'm Dead

I'll Sleep When I'm Dead


Provenance

Wikipedia article: I'll Sleep When I'm Dead: The Dirty Life and Times of Warren Zevon

The book is an unflinching look at Zevon's "high times and hard ways" and contains many admiring reflections on Zevon's work from his famous musical peers, alongside some unsavory revelations. Included are details about Zevon's abusive behavior toward his ex-wife and children in the 1970s, his many sexual dalliances and his return to drinking and drug use after his diagnosis of incurable cancer. Extensive use is made of excerpts from Zevon's private journals, which are concerned largely with his sexual partners, music industry worries and his relationships with his children, Jordan and Ariel.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: I'll Sleep When I'm Dead (Bon Jovi song)

The driving drumbeat and catchy chorus of "I'll Sleep When I'm Dead" have made it a crowd favourite during live performances. It had the distinction of being one of the few Bon Jovi songs to be played at virtually every live concert since its introduction, until The Circle Tour in 2010, where it was only played occasionally. When played, it is often incorporated into a medley with a cover song inserted into the middle, such as "Jumpin' Jack Flash" by The Rolling Stones, or "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" by The Undisputed Truth.

Input

when did the movie princess bride come out

Output

Answer

September 25 , 1987

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Princess Bride (film)

The film was first released in the United States on September 25, 1987, and was well-received by critics at the time, but was only a modest box office success. Over time, particularly with the introduction of the Internet, the film has become a cult classic. The film is number 50 on Bravo's "100 Funniest Movies", number 88 on The American Film Institute's (AFI) "AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions" list of the 100 greatest film love stories, and 46 in Channel 4's 50 Greatest Comedy Films list. In 2016, the film was inducted into the National Film Registry, being deemed as "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant".


Answer

1987

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Princess Bride (film)

The Princess Bride is a 1987 American fantasy adventure comedy film directed and co-produced by Rob Reiner, starring Cary Elwes, Robin Wright, Mandy Patinkin, Chris Sarandon, Wallace Shawn, André the Giant and Christopher Guest. Adapted by William Goldman from his 1973 novel "The Princess Bride", it tells the story of a farmhand named Westley, accompanied by companions befriended along the way, who must rescue his true love Princess Buttercup from the odious Prince Humperdinck. The film essentially preserves the novel's narrative style by presenting the story as a book being read by a grandfather (Peter Falk) to his sick grandson (Fred Savage).


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Princess Bride (film)

The film was first released in the United States on September 25, 1987, and was well-received by critics at the time, but was only a modest box office success. Over time, particularly with the introduction of the Internet, the film has become a cult classic. The film is number 50 on Bravo's "100 Funniest Movies", number 88 on The American Film Institute's (AFI) "AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions" list of the 100 greatest film love stories, and 46 in Channel 4's 50 Greatest Comedy Films list. In 2016, the film was inducted into the National Film Registry, being deemed as "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant".


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Princess Bride (film)

The Princess Bride is a 1987 American fantasy adventure comedy film directed and co-produced by Rob Reiner, starring Cary Elwes, Robin Wright, Mandy Patinkin, Chris Sarandon, Wallace Shawn, André the Giant and Christopher Guest. Adapted by William Goldman from his 1973 novel "The Princess Bride", it tells the story of a farmhand named Westley, accompanied by companions befriended along the way, who must rescue his true love Princess Buttercup from the odious Prince Humperdinck. The film essentially preserves the novel's narrative style by presenting the story as a book being read by a grandfather (Peter Falk) to his sick grandson (Fred Savage).


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Princess Bride (film)

The Princess Bride is a 1987 American fantasy adventure comedy film directed and co-produced by Rob Reiner, starring Cary Elwes, Robin Wright, Mandy Patinkin, Chris Sarandon, Wallace Shawn, André the Giant and Christopher Guest. Adapted by William Goldman from his 1973 novel "The Princess Bride", it tells the story of a farmhand named Westley, accompanied by companions befriended along the way, who must rescue his true love Princess Buttercup from the odious Prince Humperdinck. The film essentially preserves the novel's narrative style by presenting the story as a book being read by a grandfather (Peter Falk) to his sick grandson (Fred Savage).

Input

who wrote the theme to last of the mohicans

Output

Answer

Dougie MacLean

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Last of the Mohicans (soundtrack)

The main theme of the movie is the tune "The Gael" by Scottish singer-songwriter Dougie MacLean from his 1990 album "The Search".


Answer

Scottish singer - songwriter Dougie MacLean


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Last of the Mohicans (soundtrack)

Tracks 1–9 are composed by Trevor Jones except for the main theme which is composed by Dougie MacLean; tracks 10–15 are by Randy Edelman.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Last of the Mohicans (soundtrack)

The main theme of the movie is the tune "The Gael" by Scottish singer-songwriter Dougie MacLean from his 1990 album "The Search".


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Last of the Mohicans (soundtrack)

The score was re-recorded and re-released in 2000 to address some perceived problems with its original incarnation. The tracks were reordered into their onscreen chronology (the original album separated the Jones material from that composed by Edelman), some additional cues were added, and Clannad's "I Will Find You" was no longer included.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Last of the Mohicans (soundtrack)

The main theme of the movie is the tune "The Gael" by Scottish singer-songwriter Dougie MacLean from his 1990 album "The Search".


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Dougie MacLean

Dougie MacLean, OBE (born 27 September 1954) is a Scottish singer-songwriter, composer, multi-instrumentalist and record producer. Described by AllMusic as "one of Scotland's premier singer-songwriters", MacLean has performed under both his own name, and as part of multiple folk bands, since the mid 1970s.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Last of the Mohicans (1992 film)

The soundtrack features music by Trevor Jones and Randy Edelman, and the song "I Will Find You" by Clannad. The main theme of the film is taken from the tune "The Gael" by Scottish singer-songwriter Dougie MacLean.

Input

who played cory's older brother on boy meets world

Output

Answer

Will Friedle

Provenance

Wikipedia article: List of Boy Meets World characters

Eric Randall Matthews (Will Friedle) is the elder brother of Cory, Morgan, and Joshua Matthews. He began the show as a suave, popular young man, who constantly went out on dates. He was originally portrayed as the stereotypical elder brother. Eric's character changed mid-series from preppy elder brother to "crazy, moronic brother". During the fourth season, Eric takes a year off from school when he doesn't get into a college of his choice.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: List of Boy Meets World characters

Eric Randall Matthews (Will Friedle) is the elder brother of Cory, Morgan, and Joshua Matthews. He began the show as a suave, popular young man, who constantly went out on dates. He was originally portrayed as the stereotypical elder brother. Eric's character changed mid-series from preppy elder brother to "crazy, moronic brother". During the fourth season, Eric takes a year off from school when he doesn't get into a college of his choice.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Will Friedle

William Friedle (; born August 11, 1976) is an American actor, writer and comedian. He is best known for his comedic roles, most notably the underachieving elder brother Eric Matthews on the long-running TV sitcom "Boy Meets World" from 1993 to 2000. More recently, he has voiced a number of animated characters such as Terry McGinnis/Batman, the title character of "Batman Beyond", and Ron Stoppable of "Kim Possible". He voices Deadpool in "Ultimate Spider-Man" and Star-Lord in the animated version of "Guardians of the Galaxy", replacing Chris Cox. He also performed the voices of Doyle in "The Secret Saturdays", Lion-O in the rebooted "ThunderCats" series, and Blue Beetle on "". One of his most recent roles has been the speaking voice of Bumblebee in the final episode of "" and the movie "" and in the stand-alone sequel series , as well as in "".


Provenance

Wikipedia article: List of Boy Meets World characters

Eric Randall Matthews (Will Friedle) is the elder brother of Cory, Morgan, and Joshua Matthews. He began the show as a suave, popular young man, who constantly went out on dates. He was originally portrayed as the stereotypical elder brother. Eric's character changed mid-series from preppy elder brother to "crazy, moronic brother". During the fourth season, Eric takes a year off from school when he doesn't get into a college of his choice.

Input

what percent of the us population controls the wealth

Output

Answer

1 %


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Wealth inequality in the United States

In 2007, the top 20% wealthiest possessed 80% of all financial assets. In 2007 the richest 1% of the American population owned 35% of the country's total wealth, and the next 19% owned 51%. Thus, the top 20% of Americans owned 86% of the country's wealth and the bottom 80% of the population owned 14%. In 2011, financial inequality was greater than inequality in total wealth, with the top 1% of the population owning 43%, the next 19% of Americans owning 50%, and the bottom 80% owning 7%. However, after the Great Recession which started in 2007, the share of total wealth owned by the top 1% of the population grew from 35% to 37%, and that owned by the top 20% of Americans grew from 86% to 88%. The Great Recession also caused a drop of 36% in median household wealth, but a drop of only 11% for the top 1%, further widening the gap between the top 1% and the bottom 99%.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Wealth inequality in the United States

Just prior to President Obama's 2014 State of the Union Address, media reported that the top wealthiest 1% possess 40% of the nation's wealth; the bottom 80% own 7%; similarly, but later, the media reported, the "richest 1 percent in the United States now own more additional income than the bottom 90 percent". The gap between the top 10% and the middle class is over 1,000%; that increases another 1,000% for the top 1%. The average employee "needs to work more than a month to earn what the CEO earns in one hour." Although different from income inequality, the two are related. In "Inequality for All"—a 2013 documentary with Robert Reich in which he argued that income inequality is the defining issue for the United States—Reich states that 95% of economic gains went to the top 1% net worth (HNWI) since 2009 when the recovery allegedly started. More recently, in 2017, an Oxfam study found that eight rich people, six of them Americans, own as much combined wealth as half the human race.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Wealth inequality in the United States

Wealth inequality in the United States


Provenance

Wikipedia article: We are the 99%

CNBC senior markets writer Jeff Cox reacted negatively to the protest movement, calling the 1% are "the most vilified members of American society" who protesters fail to realize includes not only corporate CEOs (31% of the top earning one percent), bankers and stock traders (13.9%), but also doctors (1.85%), real estate professionals (3.2%), entertainers in arts, media and sports (1.6%), professors and scientists (1.8%), lawyers (1.22%), farmers and ranchers (0.5%), and pilots (0.2%). Cox claimed that 1 Percenters pay a disproportionate amount of their incomes to taxes. He stated the phenomenon of wealth concentration among a small segment of the population is a century old, and argued a direct correlation between wealth concentration and the health of the stock market, stating that 36.7% of the United States' wealth was controlled by the 1% in 1922, 44.2% when the stock market crashed in 1929, 19.9% in 1976, and has increased since then. Cox wrote that wealth concentration intensified at the same time that the US changed from a manufacturing leader to a financial services leader. Cox took issue with protesters' focus on income and wealth, and with their embrace of rich allies such as actress Susan Sarandon and Russell Simmons, who are themselves in the 1%. Joseph Barro of "National Review" offered similar arguments, asserting that the 1% includes those with incomes beginning at $593,000, which would exclude most Wall Street bankers.

Input

an open-source clone of unix created in the early 1990s

Output

Answer

GNU / Linux

Provenance

Wikipedia article: History of Linux

The designation "Linux" was initially used by Torvalds only for the Linux kernel. The kernel was, however, frequently used together with other software, especially that of the GNU project. This quickly became the most popular adoption of GNU software. In June 1994 in GNU's bulletin, Linux was referred to as a "free UNIX clone", and the Debian project began calling its product "Debian GNU/Linux". In May 1996, Richard Stallman published the editor Emacs 19.31, in which the type of system was renamed from Linux to Lignux. This spelling was intended to refer specifically to the combination of GNU and Linux, but this was soon abandoned in favor of "GNU/Linux".


Answer

Linux

Provenance

Wikipedia article: History of Linux

History of Linux


Provenance

Wikipedia article: History of Linux

History of Linux


Provenance

Wikipedia article: History of Linux

The designation "Linux" was initially used by Torvalds only for the Linux kernel. The kernel was, however, frequently used together with other software, especially that of the GNU project. This quickly became the most popular adoption of GNU software. In June 1994 in GNU's bulletin, Linux was referred to as a "free UNIX clone", and the Debian project began calling its product "Debian GNU/Linux". In May 1996, Richard Stallman published the editor Emacs 19.31, in which the type of system was renamed from Linux to Lignux. This spelling was intended to refer specifically to the combination of GNU and Linux, but this was soon abandoned in favor of "GNU/Linux".


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Unix-like

Various free, low-cost, and unrestricted substitutes for UNIX emerged in the 1980s and 1990s, including 4.4BSD, Linux, and Minix. Some of these have in turn been the basis for commercial "Unix-like" systems, such as BSD/OS and macOS. Several versions of (Mac) OS X/macOS running on Intel-based Mac computers have been certified under the Single UNIX Specification. The BSD variants are descendants of UNIX developed by the University of California at Berkeley with UNIX source code from Bell Labs. However, the BSD code base has evolved since then, replacing all of the AT&T code. Since the BSD variants are not certified as compliant with the Single UNIX Specification, they are referred to as "UNIX-like" rather than "UNIX".


Provenance

Wikipedia article: History of Linux

The designation "Linux" was initially used by Torvalds only for the Linux kernel. The kernel was, however, frequently used together with other software, especially that of the GNU project. This quickly became the most popular adoption of GNU software. In June 1994 in GNU's bulletin, Linux was referred to as a "free UNIX clone", and the Debian project began calling its product "Debian GNU/Linux". In May 1996, Richard Stallman published the editor Emacs 19.31, in which the type of system was renamed from Linux to Lignux. This spelling was intended to refer specifically to the combination of GNU and Linux, but this was soon abandoned in favor of "GNU/Linux".

Input

who was the first english child born in north america

Output

Answer

Virginia Dare

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Virginia Dare

Virginia Dare


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Roanoke Island

In 1587, the English now led by John White tried to settle in Roanoke Island again. At this time the Secotan Tribe and their Roanoke dependents were totally hostile to the English, but the Croatoan remained allies. Manteo remained aligned with the English and attempted to bring the English and his Croatoan tribe together, even after the newcomers mistakenly killed his own mother- who was also the Croatoan chief. After the incident Manteo was baptized into the Anglican Church. Manteo was then assigned by the English to be representative of all of the native nations in the region, this title was mainly symbolic as only the Croatoan nation followed Manteo. John White, father of the colonist Eleanor Dare and grandfather to Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the New World, left the colony to return to England for supplies. He expected to return to Roanoke Island within three months.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Roanoke Island

Roanoke Island was the site of the Roanoke Colony, an English settlement initially established in 1585 by Sir Walter Raleigh. A group of about 120 men, women and children arrived in 1587. Shortly after arriving in this New World, colonist Eleanor Dare, daughter of Governor John White, gave birth to Virginia Dare. She was the first English child born in North America. Governor White returned to England later that year for supplies. Due to impending war with Spain, White was unable to return to Roanoke Island until 1590. When he arrived, the colony had vanished. The fate of those first colonists remains a mystery to this day and is one of America's most intriguing unsolved mysteries. Archaeologists, historians, and other researchers continue to work to resolve the mystery. Visitors to the Fort Raleigh National Historic Site can watch "The Lost Colony", the second-longest-running outdoor theatre production in the United States, which presents a conjecture of the fate of Roanoke Colony.

Input

who sponsored the phoenix open before waste management

Output

Answer

Friedman Billings Ramsey

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Phoenix Open

The tournament was originally the Arizona Open, but was known for most of its history as the Phoenix Open until the investment bank Friedman Billings Ramsey became the title sponsor in October 2003, and it was known as the FBR Open for the next six editions. Waste Management began its sponsorship in 2010.


Answer

the investment bank Friedman Billings Ramsey


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Phoenix Open

The tournament was originally the Arizona Open, but was known for most of its history as the Phoenix Open until the investment bank Friedman Billings Ramsey became the title sponsor in October 2003, and it was known as the FBR Open for the next six editions. Waste Management began its sponsorship in 2010.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Phoenix Country Club

The tournament was moved in 1987 to its current home, the Stadium Course at TPC of Scottsdale, northeast of downtown Phoenix. During its time as host of the Phoenix Open, the club hosted such notable golfers as Ben Hogan, Byron Nelson, Jack Nicklaus, Arnold Palmer, Gene Littler, Johnny Miller, Miller Barber, Ben Crenshaw, Hal Sutton, and many others. The club also hosted the Western Open in 1941 and 1942.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Phoenix Open

The tournament was originally the Arizona Open, but was known for most of its history as the Phoenix Open until the investment bank Friedman Billings Ramsey became the title sponsor in October 2003, and it was known as the FBR Open for the next six editions. Waste Management began its sponsorship in 2010.

Input

who hung the lanterns in the old north church

Output

Answer

Robert Newman

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Old North Church

In April 1775, Paul Revere told three Boston patriots to hang two lanterns in the steeple. These men were the church sexton Robert Newman and Captain John Pulling—the two of whom historian David Hackett Fischer suggests each carried one lantern up to the steeple—as well as Thomas Bernard, who stood watch for British troops outside the church. The lanterns were displayed to send a warning to Charlestown patriots across the Charles River about the movements of the British Army. Revere and William Dawes would later deliver the same message to Lexington themselves, but this lantern method was a fast way to inform the back-up riders in Charlestown about the movements of the British; these back-up riders planned to deliver the warning message to Lexington and Concord in case Revere and Dawes were arrested on the way.


Answer

Captain John Pulling

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Old North Church

In April 1775, Paul Revere told three Boston patriots to hang two lanterns in the steeple. These men were the church sexton Robert Newman and Captain John Pulling—the two of whom historian David Hackett Fischer suggests each carried one lantern up to the steeple—as well as Thomas Bernard, who stood watch for British troops outside the church. The lanterns were displayed to send a warning to Charlestown patriots across the Charles River about the movements of the British Army. Revere and William Dawes would later deliver the same message to Lexington themselves, but this lantern method was a fast way to inform the back-up riders in Charlestown about the movements of the British; these back-up riders planned to deliver the warning message to Lexington and Concord in case Revere and Dawes were arrested on the way.


Answer

the church sexton Robert Newman and Captain John Pulling


Answer

Robert Newman and Captain John Pulling -- the two of whom historian David Hackett Fischer suggests each carried one lantern up to the steeple -- as well as Thomas Bernard


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Old North Church

In April 1775, Paul Revere told three Boston patriots to hang two lanterns in the steeple. These men were the church sexton Robert Newman and Captain John Pulling—the two of whom historian David Hackett Fischer suggests each carried one lantern up to the steeple—as well as Thomas Bernard, who stood watch for British troops outside the church. The lanterns were displayed to send a warning to Charlestown patriots across the Charles River about the movements of the British Army. Revere and William Dawes would later deliver the same message to Lexington themselves, but this lantern method was a fast way to inform the back-up riders in Charlestown about the movements of the British; these back-up riders planned to deliver the warning message to Lexington and Concord in case Revere and Dawes were arrested on the way.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Old North Church

Old North Church


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Old North Church

In April 1775, Paul Revere told three Boston patriots to hang two lanterns in the steeple. These men were the church sexton Robert Newman and Captain John Pulling—the two of whom historian David Hackett Fischer suggests each carried one lantern up to the steeple—as well as Thomas Bernard, who stood watch for British troops outside the church. The lanterns were displayed to send a warning to Charlestown patriots across the Charles River about the movements of the British Army. Revere and William Dawes would later deliver the same message to Lexington themselves, but this lantern method was a fast way to inform the back-up riders in Charlestown about the movements of the British; these back-up riders planned to deliver the warning message to Lexington and Concord in case Revere and Dawes were arrested on the way.

Open Domain QA - HotpotQA

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Input

Which game was published first, Near and Far or King of Tokyo?

Output

Answer

King of Tokyo

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Near and Far

Near and Far is a board game for 2 to 4 players designed by Ryan Laukat and published by Red Raven Games in 2017. In this map based storytelling board game, players seek fame and fortune and the eventual discovery of a mysterious last ruin. The gameplay blends resource management with a storybook, with players controlling heroes that equip and provision themselves in a town, and then set out to explore the map, setting up camps and completing quests. The game is a sequel to Laukat's Above and Below, which is set in the same fictional universe (Arzium).

Provenance

Wikipedia article: King of Tokyo

King of Tokyo is a tabletop game using custom dice, cards, and boards, designed by Richard Garfield and released in 2011. A New York City-based edition, "King of New York", was published in 2014. A new version of the game was released in 2016, with all new artwork and characters, as well as mutant monsters, gigantic robots and other creatures.

Input

What genre of music did Benjamin Burnley and Yannis Philippakis have in common?

Output

Answer

rock

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Benjamin Burnley

Benjamin Jackson Burnley IV (born March 10, 1978) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and record producer, best known as the founder and frontman of the American rock band Breaking Benjamin. As the sole constant of the group, Burnley has served as its principal songwriter, lead vocalist, and guitarist since its inception in 1999. Since signing with Hollywood Records in 2002, Burnley has composed six studio albums under the name Breaking Benjamin, three of which have reached platinum and two of which have reached gold in the United States. Outside of Breaking Benjamin, Burnley has also collaborated with acts such as Adam Gontier and Red.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Yannis Philippakis

Yannis Philippakis (born 23 April 1986) is the lead singer and guitarist of the British indie rock band Foals.

Input

Len Wiseman directed "Live Free or Die Hard" which is the 4 installment in the Die Hard film franchise base on what character?

Output

Answer

John McClane

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Len Wiseman

Len Ryan Wiseman (born March 4, 1973) is an American film director, screenwriter, and producer. He is best known for his work on the "Underworld" series, "Live Free or Die Hard", and the 2012 film "Total Recall".

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Live Free or Die Hard

Live Free or Die Hard (released as Die Hard 4.0 outside North America) is a 2007 American action thriller film and the fourth installment in the "Die Hard" film series. The film was directed by Len Wiseman and starred Bruce Willis as John McClane. The film's name was adapted from New Hampshire's state motto, "Live Free or Die". In the film, McClane attempts to stop cyber-terrorists who hack into government and commercial computers across the United States with the goal of starting a "fire sale" that would disable key elements of the nation's infrastructure. The film was based on the 1997 article "A Farewell to Arms" written for "Wired" magazine by John Carlin.

Input

What is the former name of the animal whose habitat the Réserve Naturelle Lomako Yokokala was established to protect?

Output

Answer

pygmy chimpanzee

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Réserve Naturelle Lomako Yokokala

The Lomako Forest Reserve is found in Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was established in 1991 especially to protect the habitat of the Bonobo apes. This site covers 3,601.88 km²

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Bonobo

The bonobo (; "Pan paniscus"), also historically called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus "Pan"; the other being the common chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). Although bonobos are not a subspecies of "Pan troglodytes", but rather a distinct species in their own right, both species are sometimes referred to collectively using the generalized term "chimpanzees", or "chimps". Taxonomically, the members of the chimpanzee/bonobo subtribe Panina (comprised entirely by the genus "Pan") are collectively termed "panins".

Input

2014 S/S is the debut album of a South Korean boy group that was formed by who?

Output

Answer

YG Entertainment

Provenance

Wikipedia article: 2014 S/S

2014 S/S is the debut album of South Korean group WINNER. It was released on August 12, 2014 by the group's record label, YG Entertainment. The members were credited for writing the lyrics and composing the majority of the album's songs.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Winner (band)

Winner (), stylized as WINNER, is a South Korean boy group formed in 2013 by YGE through reality survival program "WIN: Who Is Next". The group currently consists of four members, Jinwoo, Seunghoon, Mino and Seungyoon. One of the original members, Taehyun, departed from the group in November 2016.

Input

Which film, The Happiest Millionaire or Mars Needs Moms, was created first?

Output

Answer

The Happiest Millionaire

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Happiest Millionaire

The Happiest Millionaire is a 1967 American musical film starring Fred MacMurray and based upon the true story of Philadelphia millionaire Anthony J. Drexel Biddle. The film received an Academy Award nomination for Costume Design by Bill Thomas and the musical song score is by the Sherman Brothers. The screenplay is by A. J. Carothers based on the play that was based on the book "My Philadelphia Father" by Cordelia Drexel Biddle. This was the last film with personal involvement from Walt Disney, who died during its production.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Mars Needs Moms

Mars Needs Moms is a 2011 American 3D computer-animated motion-capture science fiction adventure family film based on the Berkeley Breathed book of the same title. The film is centered on Milo, a nine-year-old boy who, after being grounded, finally comes to understand the importance of family, and has to rescue his mother after she is abducted by Martians. It was co-written and directed by Simon Wells. It was released to theaters on March 11, 2011 by Walt Disney Pictures. The film stars both Seth Green (motion capture) and newcomer Seth Dusky (voice) as Milo. This was the last film by ImageMovers Digital before it was absorbed back into ImageMovers. The film grossed $39 million worldwide on a $150 million budget, making it a massive box-office bomb.

Input

Who is the fictional head of a British Secret Service division and for which a one-time missionary was the inspiration for?

Output

Answer

Q

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Charles Fraser-Smith

Charles Fraser-Smith (26 January 1904 – 9 November 1992) was an author and one-time missionary who is widely credited as being the inspiration for Ian Fleming's James Bond quartermaster Q. During World War II, Fraser-Smith worked for the Ministry of Supply, fabricating equipment nicknamed "Q-devices" (after Q-ships) for SOE agents operating in occupied Europe. Prior to the war, Fraser-Smith had worked as a missionary in North Africa. After the war he purchased a dairy farm in Bratton Fleming, Devon, where he died in 1992.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Q (James Bond)

Q is a fictional character in the James Bond films and film novelisations. Q (standing for Quartermaster), like M, is a job title rather than a name. He is the head of Q Branch (or later Q Division), the fictional research and development division of the British Secret Service. The use of letters as pseudonyms for senior officers in the British Secret Intelligence Service was started by its first director Captain Sir Mansfield George Smith-Cumming (1859-1923) who signed himself with a C written in green ink.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Q (James Bond)

Q is a fictional character in the James Bond films and film novelisations. Q (standing for Quartermaster), like M, is a job title rather than a name. He is the head of Q Branch (or later Q Division), the fictional research and development division of the British Secret Service. The use of letters as pseudonyms for senior officers in the British Secret Intelligence Service was started by its first director Captain Sir Mansfield George Smith-Cumming (1859-1923) who signed himself with a C written in green ink.

Input

Who was undefeated since the Athens games with 28 medals?

Output

Answer

Michael Phelps

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Klete Keller

Klete D. Keller (born March 21, 1982) is an American former competition swimmer who won medals at the 2000 Summer Olympics and the 2004 Summer Olympics in the 400-meter freestyle and the 4×200-meter freestyle relay. In the 4×200-meter freestyle relay, Keller held off a charging Ian Thorpe in the anchor leg to win the race by 0.13 seconds. This was the first time Australia had been beaten in the event in over seven years. The American relay of Michael Phelps, Ryan Lochte, Peter Vanderkaay, and Keller are undefeated since the Athens games. Vanderkaay, Larsen Jensen, Erik Vendt, and Keller make up the core of the premier American mid-distance/distance freestyle swimmers.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Michael Phelps

Michael Fred Phelps II (born June 30, 1985) is an American retired competitive swimmer and the most successful and most decorated Olympian of all time, with a total of 28 medals. Phelps also holds the all-time records for Olympic gold medals (23), Olympic gold medals in individual events (13), and Olympic medals in individual events (16). When he won eight gold medals at the 2008 Beijing Games, Phelps broke fellow American swimmer Mark Spitz's 1972 record of seven first-place finishes at any single Olympic Games. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Phelps had already tied the record of eight medals of any color at a single Games by winning six gold and two bronze medals. At the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, Phelps won four gold and two silver medals, and at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, he won five gold medals and one silver. This made him the most successful athlete of the Games for the fourth Olympics in a row.

Input

"Outside of Heaven" is a popular music song which a recording by Eddie Fisher was made at a building that in 1976 was purchased by who for $3 millon?

Output

Answer

the Unification Church

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Outside of Heaven

"Outside of Heaven" is a popular music song written by Sammy Gallop and Chester Conn. A recording by Eddie Fisher with Hugo Winterhalter's orchestra and chorus was made at Manhattan Center, New York City, on July 19, 1952. It was released by RCA Victor Records as catalog number 20-4953 (in USA) and by EMI on the His Master's voice label as catalog number B 10362.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Outside of Heaven

"Outside of Heaven" is a popular music song written by Sammy Gallop and Chester Conn. A recording by Eddie Fisher with Hugo Winterhalter's orchestra and chorus was made at Manhattan Center, New York City, on July 19, 1952. It was released by RCA Victor Records as catalog number 20-4953 (in USA) and by EMI on the His Master's voice label as catalog number B 10362.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Manhattan Center

The Manhattan Center is a building in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Built in 1906 and located at 311 West 34th Street, it houses Manhattan Center Studios (home to two recording studios), its Grand Ballroom, and the Hammerstein Ballroom, one of New York City's most renowned performance venues. In 1976, the building was purchased by its current owner, the Unification Church for $3 million.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Manhattan Center

The Manhattan Center is a building in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Built in 1906 and located at 311 West 34th Street, it houses Manhattan Center Studios (home to two recording studios), its Grand Ballroom, and the Hammerstein Ballroom, one of New York City's most renowned performance venues. In 1976, the building was purchased by its current owner, the Unification Church for $3 million.

Input

Erwin Lambert was a member of which paramilitary organization under Hitler?

Output

Answer

Schutzstaffel

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Erwin Lambert

Erwin Hermann Lambert (7 December 1909 – 15 October 1976) was a perpetrator of the Holocaust. In profession, he was a master mason, building trades foreman, Nazi Party member and member of the "Schutzstaffel" with the rank of "SS-Unterscharführer" (corporal). He supervised construction of the gas chambers for the Action T4 euthanasia program at Hartheim, Sonnenstein, Bernburg and Hadamar, and then at Sobibór and Treblinka extermination camps during Operation Reinhard. He specialized in building larger gas chambers that killed more people than previous efforts in the extermination program.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Schutzstaffel

The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes; ; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II. It began with a small guard unit known as the "Saal-Schutz" ("Hall Security") made up of NSDAP volunteers to provide security for party meetings in Munich. In 1925, Heinrich Himmler joined the unit, which had by then been reformed and given its final name. Under his direction (1929–45) it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the most powerful organizations in Nazi Germany. From 1929 until the regime's collapse in 1945, the SS was the foremost agency of security, surveillance, and terror within Germany and German-occupied Europe.

Input

In what country did Gildo Siopaes win a bronze medal for bobsledding in the 1964 Winter Olympics?

Output

Answer

Austria

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Gildo Siorpaes

Gildo Siorpaes (born January 12, 1938 in Cortina d'Ampezzo) is an Italian bobsledder who competed in the early 1960s. He was born in Cortina d'Ampezzo. He won a bronze medal in the four-man event at the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Innsbruck

Innsbruck (, ; ) is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria. It is in the Inn valley, at its junction with the Wipp valley, which provides access to the Brenner Pass some to the south.

Input

The Westchester Knicks are a basketball team in a minor league basketball organization that was known as what from 2001 to 2005?

Output

Answer

National Basketball Development League

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Westchester Knicks

The Westchester Knicks are an American professional basketball team of the NBA G League and is an affiliate of the New York Knicks in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Based in Westchester County, the Knicks play their home games at Westchester County Center in White Plains, New York.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: NBA G League

The NBA G League, or simply the G League, is the National Basketball Association's (NBA) official minor league basketball organization. The league was known as the National Basketball Development League (NBDL) from 2001 to 2005, and the NBA Development League (NBA D-League) from 2005 until 2017. The league started with eight teams until NBA commissioner David Stern announced a plan to expand the NBA D-League to fifteen teams and develop it into a true minor league farm system, with each NBA D-League team affiliated with one or more NBA teams in March 2005. At the conclusion of the 2013–14 NBA season, 33% of NBA players had spent time in the NBA D-League, up from 23% in 2011. As of the 2018–19 season, the league consists of 27 teams, all of which are either single-affiliated or owned by an NBA team.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: NBA G League

The NBA G League, or simply the G League, is the National Basketball Association's (NBA) official minor league basketball organization. The league was known as the National Basketball Development League (NBDL) from 2001 to 2005, and the NBA Development League (NBA D-League) from 2005 until 2017. The league started with eight teams until NBA commissioner David Stern announced a plan to expand the NBA D-League to fifteen teams and develop it into a true minor league farm system, with each NBA D-League team affiliated with one or more NBA teams in March 2005. At the conclusion of the 2013–14 NBA season, 33% of NBA players had spent time in the NBA D-League, up from 23% in 2011. As of the 2018–19 season, the league consists of 27 teams, all of which are either single-affiliated or owned by an NBA team.

Input

The Bay Plaza Shopping Center contains a store that headquartered where?

Output

Answer

Hoffman Estates, Illinois

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Bay Plaza Shopping Center

Bay Plaza Shopping Center is a shopping center on the south side of Co-op City, in the Bronx, New York. In addition to various department stores and shops, such as Macy's, JCPenney, Staples, Kmart, Saks Off 5th (formerly Barnes & Noble), and Old Navy, it has a multiplex movie theater, several restaurants, a fitness club, and some office space. Constructed from 1987 to 1988 by Prestige Properties, the shopping center is located between Bartow and Baychester Avenues, just outside Sections 4 and 5 of Co-op City, on an open lot that from 1960 to 1964, was the site of Freedomland USA. The Bay Plaza Shopping Center is the largest shopping center in New York City. Since opening over 25 years ago, it has become extremely successful, the center claims to hold some of the highest performing stores on a per-square-foot basis for many national retailers.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Kmart

Kmart Corporation ( , doing business as Kmart and stylized as kmart) is an American big box department store chain headquartered in Hoffman Estates, Illinois, United States.

Input

What part of Australia is Alice River and Rupertswood in?

Output

Answer

Victoria

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Alice River, Queensland

The estate is also known as Rupertswood, because the estate was named by the developer who was Sir Rupert Clarke, 3rd Baronet of Rupertswood, after his ancestral home "Rupertswood" at Sunbury, Victoria, Australia. However, Alice River was named by one of the Bell & Reid party in 1865 for a lady of his acquaintance.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Rupertswood

Rupertswood is a mansion and country estate located in Sunbury on the outskirts of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia. It is well known as the birthplace of The Ashes urn which was humorously presented to English cricket captain Ivo Bligh to mark his team's victory in an 1882-83 Test match series between Australia and England. Rupertswood is one of the largest houses constructed in Victoria and, although now subdivided, has significant farm land. The estate also had its own private railway station (until closure in 2004), and artillery battery. It is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register.

Input

Which has more species in Asia, Disporum or Boltonia?

Output

Answer

Disporum

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Disporum

Disporum (commonly known as fairy bells) is a genus of about 20 species of perennial flowering plants, found in Asia from northern India to Japan, south to Indonesia and north into the Russian Far East.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Boltonia

Boltonia is a genus of plants in the sunflower family native primarily to North America with one species in eastern Asia.

Input

Which film director is younger, Robert Z. Leonard or Sinclair Hill?

Output

Answer

Sinclair Hill

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Robert Z. Leonard

Robert Zigler Leonard (October 7, 1889 – August 27, 1968) was an American film director, actor, producer, and screenwriter.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Sinclair Hill

Sinclair Hill (1894–1945) was a British film director, producer and screenwriter. He directed nearly fifty films between 1920 and 1939. He was born as George Sinclair-Hill in London in 1894. He was awarded an OBE for his services to film.

Input

The facility where Robert Croft worked as a navy instructor was also known as?

Output

Answer

"Home of the Submarine Force"

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Robert Croft (diver)

Robert Croft is a free-diver who, in 1967, became the first person to free-dive beyond the depth of 200 feet. Croft was a US Navy diving instructor in 1962 at the US Naval Submarine Base New London submarine school in Groton, Connecticut. At the submarine escape training tank, instructors train prospective submariners how to escape from a disabled submarine, which could be resting on the sea bottom.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Naval Submarine Base New London

Naval Submarine Base New London is the United States Navy's primary East Coast submarine base, also known as the "Home of the Submarine Force". It is located in Groton, Connecticut directly across the Thames River from its namesake city of New London.

Input

Which person, William Blake Herron or John Carpenter, held more diverse roles in the movie industry?

Output

Answer

musician, editor and composer.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: William Blake Herron

William Blake Herron is an American film screenwriter, director and actor who contributed to the screenplay for "The Bourne Identity". He also contributed to the screenplay for "Eye of the Widow".

Provenance

Wikipedia article: John Carpenter

John Howard Carpenter (born January 16, 1948) is an American filmmaker, screenwriter and composer. Although Carpenter has worked with various movie genres, he is associated most commonly with horror, action, and science fiction films of the 1970s and 1980s.

Input

What characteristic meaning it's transferable between species, does monkeypox and cowpox virus both share?

Output

Answer

zoonotic

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Monkeypox virus

Monkeypox virus (MPV) is a double-stranded DNA, zoonotic virus and a species of the genus "Orthopoxvirus" in the family Poxviridae. It is one of the human orthopoxviruses that includes variola (VARV), cowpox (CPX), and vaccinia (VACV) viruses. But it is not a direct ancestor to, nor a direct descendant of, the variola virus which causes smallpox. "Monkeypox virus" causes a disease that is similar to smallpox, but with a milder rash and lower death rate. Variation in virulence of the virus has been observed in isolates from Central Africa where strains are more virulent than those from Western Africa.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Cowpox

Cowpox is an infectious disease caused by the cowpox virus. The virus, part of the genus "Orthopoxvirus", is closely related to the "vaccinia" virus. The virus is zoonotic, meaning that it is transferable between species, such as from animal to human. The transferral of the disease was first observed in dairymaids who touched the udders of infected cows and consequently developed the signature pustules on their hands. Cowpox is more commonly found in animals other than bovines, such as rodents. Cowpox is similar to, but much milder than, the highly contagious and often deadly smallpox disease. Its close resemblance to the mild form of smallpox and the observation that dairy farmers were immune from smallpox inspired the first smallpox vaccine, created and administered by English physician Edward Jenner.

Input

What film studio produced both National Treasure and The Computer Wore Tennis Shoes?

Output

Answer

Walt Disney Pictures

Provenance

Wikipedia article: National Treasure (film)

National Treasure is a 2004 American adventure film released by Walt Disney Pictures. It was written by Jim Kouf and the Wibberleys, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer and directed by Jon Turteltaub. It is the first film in the "National Treasure" film series and stars Nicolas Cage, Harvey Keitel, Jon Voight, Diane Kruger, Sean Bean, Justin Bartha and Christopher Plummer.

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Computer Wore Tennis Shoes

The Computer Wore Tennis Shoes is a 1969 American comedy film starring Kurt Russell, Cesar Romero, Joe Flynn and William Schallert. It was produced by Walt Disney Productions and distributed by Buena Vista Distribution Company as part of "The Last Laughs of the 1960s".

Open Domain QA - TriviaQA

1 / 20

Input

Which expression is associated with the sinking of the HMS Birkenhead at Gansbaai near Cape Town, South Africa, in Febuary 1852?

Output

Answer

Birkenhead drill

Provenance

Wikipedia article: HMS Birkenhead (1845)

Only 193 of the estimated 643 people on board survived, and the soldiers' chivalry gave rise to the unofficial "women and children first" protocol when abandoning ship, while the "Birkenhead drill" of Rudyard Kipling's poem came to describe courage in face of hopeless circumstances.


Answer

Women and children first

Provenance

Wikipedia article: HMS Birkenhead (1845)

The sinking of the "Birkenhead" is one of the earliest maritime disaster evacuations during which the concept of "women and children first" is known to have been applied."Women and children first" subsequently became standard procedure in relation to the evacuation of sinking ships, in fiction and in life. The term ""Birkenhead" drill" became defined as courageous behaviour in hopeless circumstances and appeared in Rudyard Kipling's 1893 tribute to the Royal Marines, "Soldier an' Sailor Too":


Answer

Women and children

Provenance

Wikipedia article: HMS Birkenhead (1845)

The sinking of the "Birkenhead" is one of the earliest maritime disaster evacuations during which the concept of "women and children first" is known to have been applied."Women and children first" subsequently became standard procedure in relation to the evacuation of sinking ships, in fiction and in life. The term ""Birkenhead" drill" became defined as courageous behaviour in hopeless circumstances and appeared in Rudyard Kipling's 1893 tribute to the Royal Marines, "Soldier an' Sailor Too":


Answer

Woman and children first


Answer

birkenhead tradition


Answer

Women and children first (protocol)


Answer

Women and children first (saying)


Answer

women and children first


Answer

women and children first saying


Answer

%22Women and children first%22


Answer

Women and Children


Answer

Birkenhead protocol


Answer

Children and women


Answer

birkenhead protocol


Answer

22women and children first 22


Answer

women and children first protocol


Answer

birkenhead drill


Answer

woman and children first


Answer

children and women


Answer

women and children


Answer

Birkenhead tradition

Input

Fred Scuttle was one of the best-known characters of which British comedian?

Output

Answer

Benny Hill

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Benny Hill

Benny Hill


Answer

Alfred Hawthorne

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Benny Hill

Alfred Hawthorne "Benny" Hill (21 January 1924 – 20 April 1992) was an English comedian and actor, best remembered for his television programme "The Benny Hill Show", an amalgam of slapstick, burlesque, and "double entendre" in a format that included live comedy and filmed segments, with him at the focus of almost every segment.


Answer

Alfred Hawthorne Hill

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Benny Hill

Alfred Hawthorne Hill was born on 21 January 1924 in Southampton, on the south coast of England. His father, Alfred Hill (later manager of a surgical appliance shop that mostly sold condoms), and grandfather, Henry Hill, had both been circus clowns. After leaving school, Hill worked at Woolworths and as a milkman, a bridge operator, a driver, and a drummer before becoming assistant stage manager with a touring revue. He was called up in 1942 and trained as a mechanic in the British Army. He served as a mechanic, truck driver, and searchlight operator in Normandy after September 1944 and later transferred to the Combined Services Entertainment division before the end of the war.


Answer

beny hill


Answer

alfred hawthorne


Answer

bennie hill


Answer

benny hill


Answer

alfred hawthorne hill


Answer

BENNY HILL


Answer

Bennie Hill


Answer

Benny hill


Answer

Beny hill

Input

Covering an area in excess of 30,000 square miles, in which country can you find the 'Dasht e Kavir Desert' the largest to lie wholly in it's own country?

Output

Answer

Persia

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Dasht-e Kavir

Dasht-e Kavir ( in classical Persian, from "khwar" (low), and "dasht" (plain), flatland), also known as Kavir-e Namak ( 'salty lowlands') and the Great Salt Desert, is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian plateau. It is about by with a total surface area of about , making it the Earth's 26th largest desert. The area of this desert stretches from the Alborz mountain range in the north-west to the Dasht-e Lut in the south-east. It is partitioned among the Iranian provinces of Khorasan, Semnan, Tehran, Isfahan and Yazd


Answer

Iran

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Dasht-e Kavir

Dasht-e Kavir ( in classical Persian, from "khwar" (low), and "dasht" (plain), flatland), also known as Kavir-e Namak ( 'salty lowlands') and the Great Salt Desert, is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian plateau. It is about by with a total surface area of about , making it the Earth's 26th largest desert. The area of this desert stretches from the Alborz mountain range in the north-west to the Dasht-e Lut in the south-east. It is partitioned among the Iranian provinces of Khorasan, Semnan, Tehran, Isfahan and Yazd


Answer

Irân


Answer

Shi'ite Republic of Iran


Answer

persia


Answer

persia iran


Answer

shi ite republic of iran


Answer

IR Iran


Answer

Irán


Answer

Iran (Persia)


Answer

i r of iran


Answer

irān


Answer

Islamic Republic of Persia


Answer

jomhuri ye eslami ye iran


Answer

islamic govermnet of iran


Answer

naval blockade of iran


Answer

Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān


Answer

Iran blockade


Answer

What language do they speak in Persia%3F


Answer

islamic iran


Answer

republic of iran


Answer

ISO 3166-1:IR


Answer

جمهوری اسلامی ایران


Answer

Islamic Republic of Iran


Answer

shia republic of iran


Answer

Persian Region


Answer

irañ


Answer

إيران


Answer

Iran (Islamic Republic of)


Answer

Republic of Iran


Answer

I.R. of Iran


Answer

iranian republic


Answer

i r iran


Answer

Jomhuri Ye Islami Ye Iran


Answer

irân


Answer

iran islamic republic of


Answer

The Islamic Republic of Iran


Answer

PERSIA


Answer

iso 3166 1 ir


Answer

Naval blockade of iran


Answer

iran blockade


Answer

جمهوری اسلامی ايران


Answer

Iranian Republic


Answer

islamic republic of iran


Answer

Shia Republic of Iran


Answer

Iran consumption expenditure


Answer

Iran, Islamic Republic of


Answer

I.R. Iran


Answer

jomhuri ye eslāmi ye irān


Answer

ایران


Answer

Historical Names of Iran


Answer

Irañ


Answer

IR of Iran


Answer

jomhūrī ye eslāmī ye īrān


Answer

Irān


Answer

La Perse


Answer

islamic republic of persia


Answer

Islamic State of Iran


Answer

Islamic republic of Iran


Answer

persian region


Answer

IRAN


Answer

jomhuri ye islami ye iran


Answer

what language do they speak in persia 3f


Answer

Islamic Iran


Answer

ir iran


Answer

Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran


Answer

IRan


Answer

Islamic Govermnet of Iran


Answer

irán


Answer

Historical names of Iran


Answer

persian state of iran


Answer

la perse


Answer

irãn


Answer

Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān


Answer

I.R.Iran


Answer

Persia (Iran)


Answer

historical names of iran


Answer

iran


Answer

iran persia


Answer

iran consumption expenditure


Answer

Persian State of Iran


Answer

Irãn


Answer

ir of iran


Answer

islamic state of iran

Input

"In ""The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy"" by Douglas Adams, what was the name of the computer that determined that the answer to the ultimate question of Life, the Universe and Everything was 42?"

Output

Answer

Deep Thought

Provenance

Wikipedia article: The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy

In "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" (published in 1979), the characters visit the legendary planet Magrathea, home to the now-collapsed planet-building industry, and meet Slartibartfast, a planetary coastline designer who was responsible for the fjords of Norway. Through archival recordings, he relates the story of a race of hyper-intelligent pan-dimensional beings who built a computer named Deep Thought to calculate the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything. When the answer was revealed to be 42, Deep Thought explained that the answer was incomprehensible because the beings didn't know what the Question they were asking actually was. It went on to predict that another computer, more powerful than itself, would be made and designed by it to calculate the question for the answer. (Later on, referencing this, Adams would create the 42 Puzzle, a puzzle which could be approached in multiple ways, all yielding the answer 42.)


Answer

Deep Thought

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Phrases from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy

In the radio series and the first novel, a group of hyper-intelligent pan-dimensional beings demand to learn the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, The Universe, and Everything from the supercomputer Deep Thought, specially built for this purpose. It takes Deep Thought 7½ million years to compute and check the answer, which turns out to be 42. Deep Thought points out that the answer seems meaningless because the beings who instructed it never actually knew what the Question was.


Answer

deep thought disambiguation


Answer

Deep thought


Answer

Deep Thought (disambiguation)


Answer

deep thought

Input

In which city are Argentine, Bel-Air, Bolivar, Liege, Rome and Stalingrad all found within a few miles of each other?

Output

Answer

Paris

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Liège

Liège is served by many direct rail links with the rest of Western Europe. Its three principal stations are Liège-Guillemins railway station, Liège-Carré, and Liège-Saint-Lambert. The InterCity Express and Thalys call at Liège-Guillemins, providing direct connections to Cologne and Frankfurt and Paris-Nord respectively.


Answer

Paris

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Rome

Architecturally, Fascism favored the most modern movements, such as Rationalism. Parallel to this, in the 1920s another style emerged, named "Stile Novecento", characterised by its links with ancient Roman architecture. One important construction in the latter style is the Foro Mussolini, now Foro Italico, by Enrico Del Debbio. Next to it, the most important Fascist site in Rome is the EUR district, designed in 1938 by Marcello Piacentini. This new quarter emerged as a compromise between Rationalist and Novecento architects, the former being led by Giuseppe Pagano. The EUR was originally conceived for the 1942 world exhibition, and was called "E.42" (""Esposizione 42""). The most representative buildings of EUR are the Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana (1938–1943), the iconic design of which has been labelled the cubic of Square Colosseum, and the Palazzo dei Congressi, example of Rationalist style. The world exhibition, however, never took place because Italy entered the Second World War in 1940, and the realised buildings were partly destroyed in 1943 during the fighting between Italian and German army after the armistice and later abandoned. The quarter was restored in the 1950s, when the Roman authorities found that they already had the seed of an off-centre business district of the type that other capitals were still planning (London Docklands and La Défense in Paris). Also, the Palazzo della Farnesina, the current seat of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was designed in 1935 in pure Fascist style.


Answer

París


Answer

paname


Answer

paris europe


Answer

paříži


Answer

paris agglomeration


Answer

ville lumiere


Answer

Ville Lumière


Answer

rue de ménilmontant


Answer

paris île de france


Answer

Rue de Menilmontant


Answer

Rue de Ménilmontant


Answer

paříž


Answer

rue de menilmontant


Answer

Paříži


Answer

Parijs


Answer

paris france


Answer

un locode frpar


Answer

Paree


Answer

département de paris


Answer

FRPAR


Answer

parís


Answer

Departement de Paris


Answer

Paris (etymology)


Answer

sports in paris


Answer

Ville Lumiere


Answer

France Paris


Answer

Cuisine of Paris


Answer

Suburbs of Paris


Answer

Département de Paris


Answer

parisien


Answer

The City of Love (city)


Answer

Paris agglomeration


Answer

paris etymology


Answer

Paris, Banks of the Seine


Answer

Paname


Answer

UN/LOCODE:FRPAR


Answer

Paris, France


Answer

Parizi


Answer

Name of Paris and its inhabitants


Answer

parijs


Answer

Paris (France)


Answer

paris ile de france


Answer

paree


Answer

paris


Answer

frpar


Answer

suburbs of paris


Answer

ville lumière


Answer

Paris, Île-de-France


Answer

paris île de france france


Answer

parizi


Answer

Parisian (person)


Answer

parisian person


Answer

Paris, Ile-De-France


Answer

Sport in Paris


Answer

Name of paris and its inhabitants


Answer

Paříž


Answer

Paris, Île-de-France, France


Answer

cuisine of paris


Answer

Paris, Europe


Answer

city of love city


Answer

Parisien


Answer

The weather in Paris


Answer

Leucetia


Answer

Paris France


Answer

Sports in Paris


Answer

weather in paris


Answer

leucetia


Answer

departement de paris


Answer

france paris


Answer

paris banks of seine


Answer

sport in paris


Answer

name of paris and its inhabitants

Input

The naval base Pearl Harbour is in which US state?

Output

Answer

Hawaii

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Attack on Pearl Harbor

The Attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States (a neutral country at the time) against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, and as Operation Z during its planning.


Answer

Hawaii

Provenance

Wikipedia article: U.S. state

The Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50. Alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959. The Constitution is silent on the question of whether states have the power to secede (withdraw) from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U.S. Supreme Court, in "Texas v. White", held that a state cannot unilaterally do so.


Answer

Hawai'i


Answer

U.S. (HI)


Answer

Geography of Hawaii


Answer

hawaii


Answer

religion in hawaii


Answer

languages of hawaii


Answer

Haiwaii


Answer

The State of Hawaii


Answer

Hawaiian culture


Answer

Demographics of Hawaii


Answer

fiftieth state


Answer

Hawai%60i


Answer

haway


Answer

Culture of Hawaii


Answer

haiwii


Answer

Religion in Hawaii


Answer

hawai i resident


Answer

Health in Hawaii


Answer

haiwaii


Answer

hawaiian culture


Answer

Hawai‘i


Answer

Demographics of Hawaiʻi


Answer

moku 60a ina o hawai 60i


Answer

moku 60aina o hawai 60i


Answer

mokuʻa ina o hawaiʻi


Answer

hawii


Answer

transport in hawaii


Answer

Hawai'i State


Answer

Hawaii (state)


Answer

State of Hawaii


Answer

demographics of hawaiʻi


Answer

Hawaii Resident


Answer

hawaï


Answer

hawái


Answer

us hi


Answer

health in hawaii


Answer

50th state


Answer

aloha state


Answer

Hawai’i


Answer

howaii


Answer

hawaii state


Answer

The Aloha State


Answer

Hawaii (U.S. state)


Answer

economy of hawaii


Answer

US-HI


Answer

Hawaií


Answer

culture of hawaii


Answer

state of hawai 60i


Answer

Haiwii


Answer

Moku%60aina o Hawai%60i


Answer

hawai 60i


Answer

hawaii usa


Answer

Hawaii, United States


Answer

Hawaiʻi


Answer

Languages of Hawaii


Answer

education in hawaii


Answer

hawaii u s state


Answer

u s hi


Answer

ハワイ


Answer

owhyhee


Answer

Education in Hawaii


Answer

Hawaii, USA


Answer

Economy of Hawaii


Answer

Fiftieth State


Answer

hawwaii


Answer

state of hawaii


Answer

mokuʻāina o hawaiʻi


Answer

hawaií


Answer

Aloha State


Answer

demographics of hawaii


Answer

state of hawaiʻi


Answer

Moku%60a-ina o Hawai%60i


Answer

State of Hawaiʻi


Answer

Transport in Hawaii


Answer

Hawii


Answer

Haway


Answer

Hawwaii


Answer

Hawai'i Resident


Answer

Howaii


Answer

State of Hawai%60i


Answer

hawaiʻi


Answer

Owhyhee


Answer

hawai i


Answer

state of hawai i


Answer

hawai i state


Answer

50th State


Answer

Hawaï


Answer

Mokuʻāina o Hawaiʻi


Answer

Mokuʻa-ina o Hawaiʻi


Answer

hawaii resident


Answer

geography of hawaii


Answer

Hawái


Answer

State of Hawai'i


Answer

hawaii united states

Input

Which World war 2 American general was nicknamed “Vinegar Joe”?

Output

Answer

Stilwell

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Joseph Stilwell

Joseph Stilwell


Answer

Stillwell


Answer

stilwell disambiguation


Answer

Stilwell (disambiguation)


Answer

stilwell


Answer

stillwell

Input

Who played Claude Greengrass in 'Heartbeat'?

Output

Answer

Walter Frederick George Williams

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Bill Maynard

Walter Frederick George Williams (8 October 1928 – 30 March 2018), better known by the stage name Bill Maynard, was an English comedian and actor.


Answer

Bill Maynard

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Bill Maynard

Bill Maynard


Answer

walter frederick george williams


Answer

bill maynard


Answer

BILL MAYNARD

Input

Where has Baroness Royall of Blaisdon led the opposition since May 2010?

Output

Answer

The Right Honourable The Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament Assembled

Provenance

Wikipedia article: House of Lords

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.


Answer

Lords Spiritual and Temporal

Provenance

Wikipedia article: House of Lords

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.


Answer

House of Lords, Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

Provenance

Wikipedia article: House of Lords

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.


Answer

House of Lords of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Provenance

Wikipedia article: House of Lords

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.


Answer

House of Lords (UK)

Provenance

Wikipedia article: House of Lords

Unlike the elected House of Commons, members of the House of Lords (excluding 90 hereditary peers elected among themselves and two peers who are "ex officio" members) are appointed. The membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England. Of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. However, they also include some hereditary peers including four dukes.


Answer

The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled

Provenance

Wikipedia article: House of Lords

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.


Answer

The House of Lords

Provenance

Wikipedia article: House of Lords

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.


Answer

English House of Lords

Provenance

Wikipedia article: House of Lords

The size of the House of Lords has varied greatly throughout its history. The English House of Lords - then comprising 168 members - was joined at Westminster by 16 Scottish peers to represent the peerage of Scotland - a total of 184 nobles - in 1707's first Parliament of Great Britain. A further 28 Irish members to represent the peerage of Ireland were added in 1801 to the first Parliament of the United Kingdom. From about 220 peers in the eighteenth century, the house saw continued expansion; with the increasing numbers of life peers after the Life Peerages Act 1958 and the inclusion of all Scottish peers and the first female peers in the Peerage Act 1963, it increased to a record size of 1,330 in October 1999, before Lords reform reduced it to 669, mostly life peers, by March 2000. The chamber's membership again expanded in the following decades, increasing to above eight hundred active members in 2014 and prompting further reforms in the House of Lords Reform Act that year. A cap of 600 members was subsequently proposed by the Lords, though the current figure is 782.


Answer

House of Lords

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Janet Royall, Baroness Royall of Blaisdon

Janet Anne Royall, Baroness Royall of Blaisdon, (born 20 August 1955) is a British Labour Co-operative Party politician. She was Leader of the House of Lords and Lord President of the Council. Currently she is the principal of Somerville College, Oxford.


Answer

House of Lords

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition (United Kingdom)

The Leader of Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition is often seen as the Prime Minister-in-waiting; as well as his salary as an MP, he or she receives a statutory salary and perquisites like those of a cabinet minister, including appointment as a Privy Counsellor. Since 1915, the Leader of the Opposition has, like the Prime Minister, always been a member of the House of Commons. Before that a member of the House of Lords sometimes took on the role, although often there was no overall Leader of the Opposition.


Answer

House of Lords

Provenance

Wikipedia article: 2010 United Kingdom general election

"The Independent" and "The Guardian" advocated tactical voting to maximise the chance of a Liberal Democrat/Labour coalition to make electoral reform including of the House of Lords and introduction of domestic proportional representation more likely."


Answer

House of Lords

Provenance

Wikipedia article: House of Lords

House of Lords


Answer

House of Lords, Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Provenance

Wikipedia article: House of Lords

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.


Answer

House of Peers of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Provenance

Wikipedia article: House of Lords

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.


Answer

house of lords parliament of united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland


Answer

House of Lords of the United Kingdom


Answer

united kingdom house of peers


Answer

house of peers of united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland


Answer

United Kingdom House of Peers


Answer

house of lords united kingdom


Answer

house of lords of united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland


Answer

House Of Lords


Answer

noble friend


Answer

english house of lords


Answer

gilded chamber


Answer

House of LORDS


Answer

House of Peers of the United Kingdom


Answer

UKHL


Answer

House of Lords (United Kingdom)


Answer

British House of Lords


Answer

house of lords parliament of united kingdom of great britain and ireland


Answer

british house of lords


Answer

house of lords


Answer

house of peers of united kingdom


Answer

united kingdom house of lords


Answer

lords spiritual and temporal


Answer

United Kingdom House of Lords


Answer

ukhl


Answer

house of lords uk


Answer

house of lords of united kingdom


Answer

right honourable lords spiritual and temporal of united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland in parliament assembled


Answer

Gilded Chamber


Answer

Noble friend


Answer

House of lords

Input

Which athlete was nicknamed The Jarrow Arrow?

Output

Answer

Stephen Cram

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Steve Cram

Stephen Cram (born 14 October 1960) is a British retired track and field athlete. Along with fellow Britons Sebastian Coe and Steve Ovett, he was one of the world's dominant middle distance runners during the 1980s. Nicknamed "The Jarrow Arrow", after his hometown, Cram set world records in the 1500 m, 2000 m and the mile during a 19-day period in the summer of 1985. He was the first man to run 1500 m under 3 minutes and 30 seconds. He won the 1500 m gold medal at the 1983 World Championships and the 1500 m silver medal at the 1984 Olympic Games.


Answer

The Jarrow Arrow

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Steve Cram

Stephen Cram (born 14 October 1960) is a British retired track and field athlete. Along with fellow Britons Sebastian Coe and Steve Ovett, he was one of the world's dominant middle distance runners during the 1980s. Nicknamed "The Jarrow Arrow", after his hometown, Cram set world records in the 1500 m, 2000 m and the mile during a 19-day period in the summer of 1985. He was the first man to run 1500 m under 3 minutes and 30 seconds. He won the 1500 m gold medal at the 1983 World Championships and the 1500 m silver medal at the 1984 Olympic Games.


Answer

Jarrow Arrow

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Steve Cram

Stephen Cram (born 14 October 1960) is a British retired track and field athlete. Along with fellow Britons Sebastian Coe and Steve Ovett, he was one of the world's dominant middle distance runners during the 1980s. Nicknamed "The Jarrow Arrow", after his hometown, Cram set world records in the 1500 m, 2000 m and the mile during a 19-day period in the summer of 1985. He was the first man to run 1500 m under 3 minutes and 30 seconds. He won the 1500 m gold medal at the 1983 World Championships and the 1500 m silver medal at the 1984 Olympic Games.


Answer

Steve Cram

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Steve Cram

Steve Cram


Answer

jarrow arrow


Answer

stephen cram


Answer

cram steve


Answer

Cram, Steve


Answer

steve cram

Input

What would you find on Carmen Miranda's hat?

Output

Answer

Fruit

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Carmen Miranda

Her tutti-frutti hat from "The Gang's All Here" (1943) inspired the United Fruit Company's Chiquita Banana logo the following year. During the 1960s, "tropicália" filmmakers in Brazil were influenced by Miranda's Hollywood films.


Answer

Nutritious fruits


Answer

fruits


Answer

Fruiting Shrubs


Answer

Fleshy fruit


Answer

prutas


Answer

bacca


Answer

simple fruit


Answer

fruit


Answer

fleshy fruit


Answer

fruity


Answer

Fruity


Answer

fruiting shrubs


Answer

Bacca


Answer

Simple fruit


Answer

Culture of fruits


Answer

Seed pod


Answer

Friut


Answer

culture of fruits


Answer

friut


Answer

pod types


Answer

nutritious fruits


Answer

Fruits


Answer

Pod types


Answer

Prutas


Answer

Fruiting


Answer

fruiting


Answer

seed pod

Input

Badminton debuted at the 1992 Summer Olympics. How many different people have won gold medals for the men's singles event in its first 5 Olympiads to 2008?

Output

Answer

five

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Badminton

Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia, but the modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock. ("Battledore" was an older term for "racquet".) Its exact origin remains obscure. The name derives from the Duke of Beaufort's Badminton House in Gloucestershire, but why or when remains unclear. As early as 1860, a London toy dealer named Isaac Spratt published a booklet entitled "Badminton Battledore – A New Game", but no copy is known to have survived. An 1863 article in "The Cornhill Magazine" describes badminton as "battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, across a string suspended some five feet from the ground".


Answer

five

Provenance

Wikipedia article: 1992 Summer Olympics

There were two main musical themes for the 1992 Games. The first one was "Barcelona", a classical crossover song composed five years earlier by Freddie Mercury and Mike Moran; Mercury was an admirer of lyric soprano Montserrat Caballé, both recorded the official theme as a duet. Due to Mercury's death eight months earlier, the duo was unable to perform the song together during the opening ceremony. A recording of the song instead played over a travelogue of the city at the start of the opening ceremony, seconds before the official countdown.


Answer

five

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympics has been hosted on five continents by a total of nineteen countries. The Games have been held four times in the United States (in 1904, 1932, 1984 and 1996); three times in the United Kingdom (in 1908, 1948 and 2012); twice each in Greece (1896, 2004), France (1900, 1924), Germany (1936, 1972) and Australia (1956, 2000); and once each in Sweden (1912), Belgium (1920), Netherlands (1928), Finland (1952), Italy (1960), Japan (1964), Mexico (1968), Canada (1976), Soviet Union (1980), South Korea (1988), Spain (1992), China (2008) and Brazil (2016).


Answer

5

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Badminton

The game may have originally developed among expatriate officers in British India, where it was very popular by the 1870s. Ball badminton, a form of the game played with a wool ball instead of a shuttlecock, was being played in Thanjavur as early as the 1850s and was at first played interchangeably with badminton by the British, the woollen ball being preferred in windy or wet weather.


Answer

5

Provenance

Wikipedia article: 1992 Summer Olympics

The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: "Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992"; Catalan: "Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992"), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Spain from 25 July to 9 August 1992.


Answer

5

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Badminton at the Summer Olympics

The 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich saw the first appearance of badminton, as a demonstration sport. Two decades later the sport debuted in competition at the Barcelona 1992 games where 4 events were held, with singles and doubles events for both men and women. Four medals were awarded in each event, including two bronzes. The next Olympics, Atlanta 1996, had 5 events with the addition of mixed doubles. There was also now a playoff between the two semifinal losers to determine the sole winner of the bronze medal. This format has continued to 2016.


Answer

5

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Summer Olympic Games

The Olympics have increased in scope from a 42-event competition with fewer than 250 male competitors from 14 nations in 1896, to 306 events with 11,238 competitors (6,179 men, 5,059 women) from 206 nations in 2016.


Answer

5

Provenance

Wikipedia article: 1996 Summer Olympics

Atlanta was selected on September 18, 1990, in Tokyo, Japan, over Athens, Belgrade, Manchester, Melbourne, and Toronto at the 96th IOC Session. The city entered the competition as a dark horse, being up against stiff competition. The US media also criticized it as a second-tier city and complained of Georgia's Confederate history. However, the IOC Evaluation Commission ranked Atlanta's infrastructure and facilities the highest, while IOC members said that it could guarantee large television revenues similar to the success of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Additionally, former US ambassador to the UN and Atlanta mayor Andrew Jackson Young touted Atlanta's civil rights history and reputation for racial harmony. Young also wanted to showcase a reformed American South. The strong economy of Atlanta and improved race relations in the South helped to impress the IOC officials. The Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games (ACOG) also proposed a substantial revenue-sharing with the IOC, USOC, and other NOCs. Atlanta's main rivals were Toronto, whose front-running bid that began in 1986 had chances to succeed after Canada had held a successful 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, and Melbourne, Australia, who hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and after Brisbane, Australia's failed bid for the 1992 games (which were awarded to Barcelona) and prior to Sydney, Australia's successful 2000 Summer Olympics bid. This would be Toronto's fourth failed attempt since 1960 (tried in 1960, 1964, and 1976, but defeated by Rome, Tokyo and Montreal).

Input

What was the name of the Russian Submarine that sank in the Barents Sea in the year 2000 ?

Output

Answer

Kursk

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Russian submarine Kursk (K-141)

Russian submarine Kursk (K-141)


Answer

kursk russia


Answer

Kursk, Russia


Answer

kursk urban okrug


Answer

kursk


Answer

Kursk Urban Okrug


Answer

KURSK

Input

What is the capital of Malta?

Output

Answer

Valletta

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Valletta

Valletta


Answer

Valletta

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Malta

Malta (, ; ), officially known as the Republic of Malta (), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisia, and north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of , Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely populated country. Its capital is Valletta, which is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km². The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese officially recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union.


Answer

La Valletta

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Valletta

In the Great Siege of 1565, Fort Saint Elmo fell to the Ottomans, but the Order eventually won the siege with the help of Sicilian reinforcements. The victorious Grand Master, Jean de Valette, immediately set out to build a new fortified city on the Sciberras Peninsula to fortify the Order's position in Malta and bind the Knights to the island. The city took his name and was called "La Valletta".


Answer

valletta malta


Answer

Valletta, Malta


Answer

valletta


Answer

Capital of Malta


Answer

Citta Umilissima


Answer

Valleta


Answer

valleta


Answer

città umilissima


Answer

Città Umilissima


Answer

la valleta


Answer

valetta


Answer

capital of malta


Answer

Valetta, Malta


Answer

la valletta


Answer

Il-Belt Valletta


Answer

il belt valletta


Answer

citta umilissima


Answer

valetta malta


Answer

La Valleta


Answer

Valetta

Input

‘Troilus and ‘who’ is the title of a play by William Shakespeare?

Output

Answer

Criseyde

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Troilus and Criseyde

Troilus and Criseyde


Answer

Cresseid

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Troilus and Criseyde

The poem had an important legacy for later writers. Robert Henryson's Scots poem "The Testament of Cresseid" imagined a tragic fate for Criseyde not given by Chaucer. In historical editions of the English "Troilus and Criseyde", Henryson's distinct and separate work was sometimes included without accreditation as an "epilogue" to Chaucer's tale. Other texts, for example John Metham's "Amoryus and Cleopes" (c. 1449), adapt language and authorship strategies from the famous predecessor poem. Shakespeare's tragedy "Troilus and Cressida", although much blacker in tone, was also based in part on the material.


Answer

Cressida

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Troilus and Criseyde

The poem had an important legacy for later writers. Robert Henryson's Scots poem "The Testament of Cresseid" imagined a tragic fate for Criseyde not given by Chaucer. In historical editions of the English "Troilus and Criseyde", Henryson's distinct and separate work was sometimes included without accreditation as an "epilogue" to Chaucer's tale. Other texts, for example John Metham's "Amoryus and Cleopes" (c. 1449), adapt language and authorship strategies from the famous predecessor poem. Shakespeare's tragedy "Troilus and Cressida", although much blacker in tone, was also based in part on the material.


Answer

Cressida

Provenance

Wikipedia article: William Shakespeare

In the early 17th century, Shakespeare wrote the so-called "problem plays" "Measure for Measure", "Troilus and Cressida", and "All's Well That Ends Well" and a number of his best known tragedies. Many critics believe that Shakespeare's greatest tragedies represent the peak of his art. The titular hero of one of Shakespeare's greatest tragedies, "Hamlet", has probably been discussed more than any other Shakespearean character, especially for his famous soliloquy which begins "To be or not to be; that is the question". Unlike the introverted Hamlet, whose fatal flaw is hesitation, the heroes of the tragedies that followed, Othello and King Lear, are undone by hasty errors of judgement. The plots of Shakespeare's tragedies often hinge on such fatal errors or flaws, which overturn order and destroy the hero and those he loves. In "Othello", the villain Iago stokes Othello's sexual jealousy to the point where he murders the innocent wife who loves him. In "King Lear", the old king commits the tragic error of giving up his powers, initiating the events which lead to the torture and blinding of the Earl of Gloucester and the murder of Lear's youngest daughter Cordelia. According to the critic Frank Kermode, "the play-offers neither its good characters nor its audience any relief from its cruelty". In "Macbeth", the shortest and most compressed of Shakespeare's tragedies, uncontrollable ambition incites Macbeth and his wife, Lady Macbeth, to murder the rightful king and usurp the throne until their own guilt destroys them in turn. In this play, Shakespeare adds a supernatural element to the tragic structure. His last major tragedies, "Antony and Cleopatra" and "Coriolanus", contain some of Shakespeare's finest poetry and were considered his most successful tragedies by the poet and critic T.S. Eliot.


Answer

criseyde


Answer

Criseida


Answer

kressida


Answer

Cressida (medieval romance)


Answer

cressida medieval romance


Answer

criseida


Answer

Kressida


Answer

cressida


Answer

cresseid

Input

Who was the first winner of 'I'm A Celebrity, Get Me Out Of Here'?

Output

Answer

Tony Blackburn

Provenance

Wikipedia article: I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here! (British series 1)

The first series of I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here! was broadcast on ITV from 25 August to 8 September 2002. Ant & Dec presented the main show on ITV, whilst Louise Loughman hosted the spin-off show "I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here! NOW!" on ITV2. The winner of this series was radio DJ Tony Blackburn.


Answer

lenny gamble


Answer

Lenny Gamble


Answer

tony blackburn


Answer

TONY BLACKBURN

Input

What musician formed a singing duo with Art Garfunkel in 1963?

Output

Answer

Paul Simon

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Art Garfunkel

Arthur Ira Garfunkel (born November 5, 1941) is an American singer, poet, and actor. He is best known for his partnership with Paul Simon in the folk rock duo Simon & Garfunkel.


Answer

Tico and the Triumphs


Answer

tico and triumphs


Answer

Paul Simon (singer)


Answer

Paul Frederic Simon


Answer

Kathy Chitty


Answer

jerry landis


Answer

paul simon musician


Answer

paul simon singer


Answer

Paul Simon (Musician)


Answer

paul frederic simon


Answer

Paul Simon (musician)


Answer

paul simon


Answer

Jerry Landis


Answer

kathy chitty

Input

Which multi-talented actor played Mr Burns and Derek Smalls?

Output

Answer

Harry Shearer

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Mr. Burns

Charles Montgomery "Monty" Burns, usually referred to simply as Mr. Burns, is a recurring character in the animated television series "The Simpsons". He is voiced by Harry Shearer. He is the evil, greedy and wealthy owner of the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant and, by extension, Homer Simpson's boss. He is assisted at almost all times by Waylon Smithers, his loyal and sycophantic aide, adviser, confidant, and secret admirer.


Answer

Harry Shearer

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Derek Smalls

Derek Albion Smalls is a fictional character played by Harry Shearer in the spoof rockumentary "This is Spinal Tap". He is the bassist for mock British heavy metal group Spinal Tap, playing alongside guitarists Nigel Tufnel (Christopher Guest) and David St. Hubbins (Michael McKean), as well as with a plethora of drummers and keyboardists.


Answer

harry shearer


Answer

Harry sheerer


Answer

Harry scheerer


Answer

harry sheerer


Answer

Harry schearer


Answer

harry schearer


Answer

harry scheerer

Input

Which NATO member country has the smallest population?

Output

Answer

Iceland

Provenance

Wikipedia article: NATO

On 4 March 1947 the Treaty of Dunkirk was signed by France and the United Kingdom as a "Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance" in the event of a possible attack by Germany or the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II. In 1948, this alliance was expanded to include the Benelux countries, in the form of the Western Union, also referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organization (BTO), established by the Treaty of Brussels. Talks for a new military alliance which could also include North America resulted in the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949 by the member states of the Western Union plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland.


Answer

lydveldid island


Answer

The Republic of Iceland


Answer

Ísland


Answer

island of iceland


Answer

Republic of Iceland


Answer

iso 3166 1 is


Answer

Island of Iceland


Answer

ijsland


Answer

ISO 3166-1:IS


Answer

Ice-land


Answer

land of ice and snow


Answer

ICELAND


Answer

mainland iceland


Answer

ice land


Answer

IJsland


Answer

Ice land


Answer

hyui


Answer

Lydveldid island


Answer

Mainland Iceland


Answer

lýðveldið ísland


Answer

Lýðveldið ísland


Answer

Icedland


Answer

Icelandic isles


Answer

icealnd


Answer

icelandic isles


Answer

Hyui


Answer

iceland


Answer

The land of ice and snow


Answer

ísland


Answer

Icealnd


Answer

republic of iceland


Answer

icedland

Input

Who built the original Palace of Versailles that was enlarged by Louis XIV?

Output

Answer

Louis XIII

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Palace of Versailles

Section::::History.:The hunting lodge and château of Louis XIII.


Answer

Louis XIII

Provenance

Wikipedia article: Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné (Louis the God-given) and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: "Dauphin". At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God.


Answer

louis xiii of france s


Answer

louis 13


Answer

Louis XIII of France


Answer

Louis Xiii


Answer

Louis the 13


Answer

Louis the 13th


Answer

louis 13th


Answer

Louis Xiii of France


Answer

king louis xiii


Answer

ludwig xiii


Answer

louis xiii


Answer

Louis XIII of France's


Answer

louis xiii of france


Answer

Louis Treize


Answer

Louis xiii


Answer

Louis II of Navarre


Answer

Louis Xiii Bourbon


Answer

Louis XIII Bourbon


Answer

louis ii of navarre


Answer

Louis 13th


Answer

Louis 13


Answer

louis treize


Answer

Ludwig XIII


Answer

louis xiii bourbon


Answer

lewis xiii


Answer

Lewis XIII


Answer

King Louis XIII

Open Domain QA - ELI5

1 / 20

Input

Why do well established brands (eg. Coke) still market themselves so aggressively? What do they stand to gain when they're already a household name?

Output

Answer

All that marketing is how they continue to stay a household name. These aren't video game achievements where once you reach them, you never lose them again. If these established brands stop marketing themselves, they will start losing market share.


Answer

I apologize for not having a cite to hand, but we did a case study in my intro to marketing class in college (this would have been in 1999, I think) on a trial McDonalds ran somewhere in Ohio. They had the same thought you do: everyone already knows what McDonalds is, where to find them, what they serve, etc. So they pulled all their advertising from one city. The results were both quick and significant: they started shedding market share in that city within a month, to the tune of tens of percents (IIRC, it approached 50%, but since I don't have the data to hand and human memory is crap, I don't want to overbid).


Answer

If you pay attention to it, only a small amount of Coke marketing is actually intended to promote their umbrella brand. Instead they focus more on individual product brands (e.g. Coke Zero, Fanta, etc.). While Coca-Cola maybe well known, individual products and their "positioning" (summary of product characteristics, intended target group, benefits, etc.) may still benefit from increased awareness. Additionally marketing and branding isn´t all about awareness, that´s just the first part of the purchase funnel (Awareness -- > Image -- > Consideration -- > Purchase -- > Repurchase), they also want to promote a certain image. This image may change over the years, even if the name and logo doesn´t or it may be under attack from outside reevaluations. So even a well-known umbrella brand is marketed to re-enforce and maybe update their brand image. Lastly, Coke is a consumption good with relatively low involvement (small investments, no long-term effects of purchase decision, etc.) unlike, e.g. a car for example. So people often decide relatively spontaneous about which brand and whether to buy at all. That´s why it´s more important for Coke to promote themselves constantly than it is for a brand like GE. However we shouldn´t discount that many companies actually do invest in marketing activities that aren´t really helpful to them. Not every company investing in brand awareness has done the research and pinpointed brand awareness as their key lever to address. Most often marketing activities that promote the brand awareness are just the easiest and most salient measure to do for many marketing departments.


Answer

Because if you do not actively market yourself you very quickly fall out of the backs of people's minds and once that happens you stop being a household name. Shortly after that you stop being an established brand and either have to claw your way back to the top or you fail. It is far better to just continually market your brand.


Answer

Basically, brand exposure is mind control. Thinking about Coke makes you want a Coke. Seeing an ad for Coke while you're drinking Coke makes you feel good about drinking Coke, because you see other smiling, attractive people drinking Coke too. And now you want to have some Coke at home, so after you finish drinking that Coke you go to the store and buy a case of Coke. And you serve Coke with dinner because you want your kids to be smiling, attractive people too. Attractive people like Coke, of course - the TV told me so. Drink Coke!


Answer

There are many reasons, but the one that I don't see mentioned yet is something called "top of mind". Basically the core concept is this: When I say "fast food", what place immediately comes to your mind? When I say "soda", what product immediately comes to your mind? Occupying the "top of mind" of a person essentially sets you up for success because if people don't think of you or or your product when a need/want comes up, they won't chose you. Constantly showing advertisements for Coke keeps the brand in your top of mind, and you will more than likely think of it the next time you think about drinking a soda.


Answer

The second biggest part of marketing, after drawing in new customers, is usually to make existing customers feel satisfied in their choice of brand. Ensuring that people continue to drink Coke is at least as important as marketing Coke to new customers, or encouraging customers to leave the competition.


Answer

Products like Coca-Cola (and most of their sister products) are known as cash cows in marketing terminology - they bring in steady, large income streams and profits from these products can be used to fund expensive R & D and marketing campaigns for products that are new or not yet self-sustaining. However they still require a considerable marketing investment to ensure that brand awareness remains high in the medium to long term.


Answer

You may know of it, but you need to make sure everyone does. New generations of people are born daily, and if marketing slows down, something will slowly replace it.


Answer

Coca Cola tried cutting advertising once. They lost a ton of revenue that year and decided "well, let's not try that again."


Answer

Kaepa had a few years where they were a household name and a top tier brand. Do you know what Kaepa is?


Answer

People are subconsciously attracted to products that they recognize, so companies constantly advertise to ensure the recognition is always there.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Diet Coke

Diet Coke (called Coca-Cola Light in some countries) is a sugar-free and no-calorie soft drink produced and distributed by The Coca-Cola Company. It contains artificial sweeteners instead of sugar. Unveiled on July 8, 1982, and introduced in the United States on August 9, it was the first new brand since 1886 to use the Coca-Cola trademark. The product quickly overtook the company's existing diet cola, Tab, in sales.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Advertising campaign

The positioning process is imperative in marketing because of the specific level of consumer-based recognition is involved. A company must create a trademark brand for themselves in order to be recognizable by a broad range of consumers. For example, a fast food restaurant positions itself as fast, cheap, and delicious. They are playing upon their strengths and most visible characteristics. On the other hand, a luxury car brand will position its brand as a stylish and expensive platform because they want to target a specific brand very different than the fast food brand.

Input

why does sugar turn brown when melted?

Output

Answer

Sugar is a molecule made of a particular arrangement of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms. When you heat up the sugar, this adds energy to the system that can be used to fuel chemical reactions that rearrange the bonds between these atoms. Some of these compounds are dark brown in color and add caramel flavors to the sugar. Similar reactions occur in meat when you cook it and get a tasty brown crust.


Answer

It turns brown because of [caramelization]( URL_0 ). Now, caramelization in itself is a poorly understood process, but we know a few things about it. It is, simply put, the degradation of sugars under heat. Now, these sugars break up into simpler sugars, dehydrate, fragment into aldehydes and ketones, polymerise and undergo several other reactions. Don't concern yourself with the details of the reactions unless you want to - just understand that there are many reactions simultaneously occuring at that temperature. For the compounds we are interested in, we can broadly separate them into two categories - volatile compounds and polymers. (It's a lot more complex than this but these are the two important classes). * Volatile compounds like [diacetyl]( URL_1 ), [Hydroxymethylfurfural]( URL_2 ) etc. are released which gives caramel its characteristic smell/flavour. * The polymers (30+ carbon atoms/molecule) formed are grouped into three classes: Caramelans, Caramelens and Caramelins. They contribute to the brown colour of caramel. Clearing out some misconceptions 1. Caramelization is not the same as the Maillard reaction (browning of bread, meat etc). *The Maillard reaction requires amino acids to react with sugars, whereas caramelization does not* (it is simply the degradation of sugars with heat). They both involve browning and can occur simultaneously, on the same food base, and with similar results on the taste buds, so they are quite easily confused. 2. It is not brown because of carbon. That sort of burning requires a much higher temperature than the caramelization reaction. If you try to caramelize on too high a flame, you will see it turning black and tasting charred. That is carbon (see pyrolysis/carbonization for such reactions).


Answer

It's worth mentioning that it is possible to melt sugar with it remaining clear, but it is difficult because it so readily burns.


Answer

I had a lab report due on the Maillard reaction at 11:59. It’s because of what everyone else said. Monosaccharide sugars respond quicker than di/poly- saccharides and the reaction increases speed with increased temperature and or increased pH to make it more a more aqueous or basic environment. It’s a non enzymatic browning reaction that occurs between a reducing sugar and an amino acid with heating/ etc. ketones work better than aldoses because they are more inclined to release positive aromatic compounds while aldoses such as Xylose release compounds that smell like dirty socks.


Answer

A lot of whack answers in here and misinformation. First off, it has nothing to do with the Maillard reaction so ignore all those. ELI5: Think of sugar like a pyramid of Lego bricks, you start heating them up in a frying pan and start by breaking them into single bricks, this is your melted sugar. As you keep heating, your going to start melting some of your bricks that are touching the frying pan. Clearly these melted Lego bricks aren't going fit back together, maybe you can get a few together but you can't stack them like you could before and some of them might start melting together, these are your browning products and flavors in your sugar (caramelisation). If you keep heating your eventually going to burn your Lego, turning it black (pyrolysis).


Answer

Don't all things go brown/golden when heated.. Then black when they burn..?


Answer

Sugar is part of a type of molecules known as carbohydrates. At a very simplistic level carbohydrates are carbon atoms with waters around them with the generic formula (CH2O)x. For sugar x is 12 but that is not important. What is important is that if you heat sugar enough, you eliminate water molecules (think of it as boiling) and you are left with just carbon atoms (basically coal). Between coal and sugar, there are various levels of dehydration, so you go from colorless/white to black. In between you have yellow and brown, depending on how much dehydration you did.


Answer

As others have said there are some reactions that occur to make it brown, however there are many compounds that I work with which are nice white crystals when solids but are yellow or brown oils when liquids so a change in color doesn't necessarily mean a chemical reaction.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: History of sugar

Sugar was first produced from sugarcane plants in northern India sometime after the first century CE. The derivation of the word “sugar” is thought to be from Sanskrit ("śarkarā"), meaning "ground or candied sugar," originally "grit, gravel". Sanskrit literature from ancient India, written between 1500 - 500 B.C. provides the first documentation of the cultivation of sugar cane and of the manufacture of sugar in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. The Sanskrit name for a crudely made sugar substance was guda, meaning “to make into a ball or to conglomerate.”


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Honey

Unlike many other liquids, honey has very poor thermal conductivity of 0.5 W/(m⋅K) at 13% water content (compared to 401 W/(m⋅K) of copper), taking a long time to reach thermal equilibrium. Due to its high kinematic viscosity honey does not transfer heat through momentum diffusion (convection) but rather through thermal diffusion (more like a solid), so melting crystallized honey can easily result in localized caramelization if the heat source is too hot, or if it is not evenly distributed. However, honey takes substantially longer to liquify when just above the melting point than at elevated temperatures. Melting 20 kg of crystallized honey, at , can take up to 24 hours, while 50 kg may take twice as long. These times can be cut nearly in half by heating at . However, many of the minor substances in honey can be affected greatly by heating, changing the flavor, aroma, or other properties, so heating is usually done at the lowest temperature possible for the shortest amount of time.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Honey

Like all sugar compounds, honey caramelizes if heated sufficiently, becoming darker in color, and eventually burns. However, honey contains fructose, which caramelizes at lower temperatures than glucose. The temperature at which caramelization begins varies, depending on the composition, but is typically between . Honey also contains acids, which act as catalysts for caramelization. The specific types of acids and their amounts play a primary role in determining the exact temperature. Of these acids, the amino acids, which occur in very small amounts, play an important role in the darkening of honey. The amino acids form darkened compounds called melanoidins, during a Maillard reaction. The Maillard reaction occurs slowly at room temperature, taking from a few to several months to show visible darkening, but speeds up dramatically with increasing temperatures. However, the reaction can also be slowed by storing the honey at colder temperatures.

Input

How would someone who is fit be affected if they literally ate complete Junk food for one day?

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Answer

There's a show on A & E called "Fit to Fat to Fit." It follows personal trainers who purposefully eat junk for 8 weeks to get fat. And then they lose the weight alongside their heaviest clients. Most episodes follow similar tropes. Typically, the trainers feel great for a week or two. The rush of processed sugars in their lean bodies and relaxation of regimens is a pretty common theme. After a while, they all become sluggish and disinterested in day to day stuff they used to love. They become flabby and all of that hits them psychologically since they pride themselves on fitness and their physique. TLDR while it might be fun for a little while to go on a binder, it would take a toll on your organs, your physique and quite possibly your mental state.


Answer

Well, if you've been considered "fit" for a long time, probably not too much, image-wise. You wouldn't magically get fatter like a cartoon character, so there's that. It also depends on how fit you are. If you're training like Michael Phelps did for the olympics, you're actually **below** what he was consuming...around 12,000 calories a day during peak Olympic training! So if you're a professional athlete, eating 10,000 calories in one day will probably have a minimal affect on you. Now, as for an average, 9-to-5 office worker who's in "good" shape, i.e. slightly above their optimal weight/height BMI and good cardiovascular shape with low blood pressure, probably not *too* much either. Our bodies are capable of some pretty amazing things. If you ate all that food throughout the course of the day, the most might be indigestion, upset stomach, and possible vomiting due to over-eating. You'll probably feel lethargic, maybe a headache due to the rush of too much sugar, etc. Basically you'd potentially feel kinda crappy. Actual detrimental effects? Probably minimal, depending on how much sugar/salt you had and whether or not you're diabetic or prone to high blood pressure. On average, bloated and yucky feeling, but otherwise probably okay. Disclaimer: I am not a doctor nor a nutritionist. Consult a doctor or nutritionist before consuming mass large quantities of food.


Answer

In the world of fitness, this is known as a "cheat day." A lot of bodybuilders and powerlifters diet this way. Well, maybe not 10,000 calories extra... but they can eat junk food. I eat really clean throughout the week and I measure all of my portions, count every gram of protein, carbs and fat I eat. Then, on the weekends, I can have pizza, ice cream, whatever I'm craving. I don't binge or go crazy like 10,000 calories, but I can have a couple extra slices of pizza without affecting my physique or my strength. Basically, it all evens out over the course of a week assuming you don't eat 10,000 calories every two days or something crazy like that. You cannot get fat or ruin your physique/strength in just one day the same way you cannot get a six-pack and huge muscles in one single day. Your body fat and muscle mass change over the course of weeks, months, and years. So, one single cheat day is not going to make a significant impact. A 10,000 calorie cheat day is a little different, you'd gain more fat than a usual cheat day, but normal humans don't eat that way all the time. This is all assuming you are a normal, healthy individual without any medical conditions. Obviously, if you have some pre-existing condition, it may not be quite so simple for you.


Answer

Doctor here, My suspicion is that not much would happen from a one day calorie binge. Given that we are talking about junk food, the most likely consequence is a temporary increase in weight via expansion of total body water due to the insane amounts of salt in low quality foods. I would also suspect that the subject would have some pretty serious diarrhea from the huge osmotic load that is being delivered to the small intestine.


Answer

You would look the same, possibly a little bloated the next day due to all the excess salt. Otherwise you would: A) shit a lot more i) possibly also diarrhea B) get really thirsty, drink more water, and subsequently pee a lot C) feel sluggish af D) want to food coma and just sleep Source: ate Wendy's, cake, chocolate, and pizza all day yesterday.


Answer

they would throw up and then prbly get the shits. If its just one day, your body is going to reject it because it is so different from your normal food intake. even if they didn't get sick, theyre still going to feel like shit for being overfull and filled with junk.


Answer

It's still calories in vs. calories out. 10,000 is a huge amount for one day but if you eat 2,000 the other 6 days and are doing enough exercise such that your total energy use is 23,000 calories that week you're still going to lose weight.


Answer

Only one day? You'll probably feel sick, but after you digest/vomit it all, no consequence is the likely outcome. The risk is not eating 10k calories once, but eating an extra thousand everyday


Answer

You can also check out the movie Super Size Me. I'm pretty sure it's still streaming on Netflix. It explains pretty much the same thing hillrat mentioned on Fit to Fat to Fit.


Answer

One day? A huge poop the next day, maybe a little stomach pain, maybe fatigue. Maybe a few oz of body fat built up.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Malnutrition

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems. It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. Not enough nutrients is called undernutrition or undernourishment while too much is called overnutrition. Malnutrition is often used to specifically refer to undernutrition where an individual is not getting enough calories, protein, or micronutrients. If undernutrition occurs during pregnancy, or before two years of age, it may result in permanent problems with physical and mental development. Extreme undernourishment, known as starvation, may have symptoms that include: a short height, thin body, very poor energy levels, and swollen legs and abdomen. People also often get infections and are frequently cold. The symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies depend on the micronutrient that is lacking.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Eating disorder

An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health. They include binge eating disorder, where people eat a large amount in a short period of time; anorexia nervosa, where people eat very little and thus have a low body weight; bulimia nervosa, where people eat a lot and then try to rid themselves of the food; pica, where people eat non-food items; rumination disorder, where people regurgitate food; avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, where people have a lack of interest in food; and a group of other specified feeding or eating disorders. Anxiety disorders, depression, and substance abuse are common among people with eating disorders. These disorders do not include obesity.

Input

Why isn't the horror genre as respected as other film genres?

Output

Answer

Many horror films lack any kind of impactful storytelling. They often rely on gruesome visuals, jump-scares, and patently absurd plots. This cheapens the whole genre, and makes it harder for people to take them seriously. As you said, there are exceptions.


Answer

On top of other good reasons, I think it's because a large percentage of the population simply won't ever go watch one. I know lots of people who wouldn't go watch a horror movie if you paid them, mostly because they don't enjoy spending two hours having a movie scare the crap out of them.


Answer

Firstly, the premise is flawed - a list of horror films is going to include many of the greatest films ever made (Nosferatu, Jaws, Psycho, The Thing, The Shining, Deliverance, Alien, The Fly, Terminator I, Poltergeist) and with a list of venerable directors (Ridley Scott, Steven Spielberg, Stanley Kubrick, Alfred Hitchcock, Guillermo Del Toro, Roman Polanski, Francis Ford Coppola). Horror has also launched, revived, defined, or propelled a lot of careers - Bela Lugosi, Sigourney Weaver, Anthony Hopkins, Jeff Goldblum, Mia Farrow, etc). Here are a few reasons why you don't think of many horror films as prestigious: 1) Horror typically works best with unknown casts. This allows the cast to be picked off, piece by piece, without the star power exerting influence or giving the order of deaths away (Psycho subverts this by murdering the star early in the picture). 2) You don't think of a lot of great horror films as horror films, because they often overlap with other genres. Alien, Terminator, and The Thing overlap with sci-fi; Rebecca overlaps with Romance, others overlap with psychological thrillers. 3) Your preconceptions about the genre don't match the reality of that genre. Again, look at that list of films - holy shit, those are great films! I'm guessing when you think "horror" you think "b-grade slasher flick" or "monster attack". You could do this to any genre, though - the romantic comedy is either The Apartment, or it's a Heigl disaster; the movie musical can be West Side Story or Mamma Mia. 4) Horror films are very cheap. Done right, they usually need very little budget, small casts, few names, and thus are a great proving ground for new filmmakers. This results in way more shitty, low-grade horror films in distribution than shitty, low-grade historical epics.


Answer

Because it's usually a budget flick, uncompelling story, and cheap scare tactics instead of an actual dark story. I don't like it because it's very predictable and nothing memorable. The characters all act stupid and make the worst decisions just to keep the movie going for 2 hours. The only scary thing about the movie is the sound going from dead silent to stupid loud. That pretty much described most horror movies.


Answer

Horror movies and action movies are both seen in similar ways - they're not made to be an engrossing or beautiful story with complex characters and deep themes. They're just built to thrill you. Action movies usually do this in a more expensive way with explosions and car chases, and horror movies tend to be a bit more low-budget, thrilling you with jump scares and gore. Neither of those really lends itself to good storytelling, but every once in a while, there's an exception and you end up with a real classic. For horror, that would be movies like Nightmare on Elm Street or the original Saw, both of were unique and interesting stories even without the splatter, and which influenced dozens of films after.


Answer

Because, by virtue of being included in the genre, it's kind of assumed that they are just leveraging one emotion for the entire film: Fear. There are plenty of other movies that have parts that can be plenty scary, but that also have more going on in the plot. Take, for example, *Silence of the Lambs*, or *Frailty*, or *Alien*, or *Terminator*. None of those movies are considered "horror" movies, but there's plenty of *killing for the sake of killing* going on, as well as constant mortal threat to the protagonists. But in films like those, there is also, generally, a question greater than "am I going to live or die." Once the plot becomes any more complicated than, "sorority girl tries to escape," people don't really call it a "horror film" anymore...


Answer

A Youtube reviewer, Chris Stuckman, made a great 12:33 video about the problem with modern horror movies that [seems to nail it on the head.]( URL_0 )


Answer

You've heard of Troll 2 and the Scarecrow series, yes?


Answer

While I think that the current top comment by /u/o0joshua0o is the closet to summing things up (others have added a few solid points as well), there is still something missing. I'll try to best explain my point in a way fitting to ELI5, though this might lead to a fairly long post. The short of it is this: scaring people is easy. It isn't that the story is lacking impact or that it relies on gruesome visuals or jump-scares. If the goal of a story (a book, a movie, etc.) is to scare and it manages to do just that, then it has made a solid impact. This can be anything from the many kid-friendly campfire stories about men with hooks for hands to various urban legends or creepypastas about sleep experiments to novels about a father and husband who struggles to be a good man while dealing with his personal demons (that also happens to have a popular film adaptation that completely misses the point). Storytelling is all about the manipulation of the audience. It is like a magic act. But rather than having an audience who wants to believe an elephant can really disappear then reappear, a storyteller has an audience that wants their emotions manipulated for the purpose of entertainment. Whether it involves making them laugh, cry, or fear for their own well-being is not entirely irrelevant though it is most important that they at least feel *something* during the performance. And a good storyteller will manage to illicit at least one or more of even the most basic emotional responses all without the audience being actively aware that they are being manipulated. An audience wants to believe in the illusion. They know the story you're telling them isn't real, or at the very least isn't actually taking place at that very moment. It involves words on a page, or a man sitting at a campfire, or actors on a stage. A bad storyteller will rely heavily on familiarity to get their point across. A reused joke. A familiar plot and twist. Cliches that are meant to act as emotional shorthand, like putting a mother and child inside a burning building. The whole "showing, not telling" thing you often hear in writing courses or in threads like those in /r/books. The audience is, at that point, doing all the emotional work. They have to make all those connections. That music means something exciting is happening. The fat guy fell down so I need to laugh at his being fat and clumsy. Or, back to my previous example, that mother and child are in danger so I should feel concern for their safety. Shorthand is fine. And reusing old material is as well. But it's all in the execution. Anyone can reference an old Simpson's gag or quote Airplane (just look at all the reposts on reddit or anywhere else for proof of that). But not everyone can make people actually laugh at it the same way they had the first time they saw or heard it. If any laughter happens at all, it's more because they fondly recall that original moment. And this is getting to what I mean by "scaring people is easy". Comedy, generally speaking, is really hard. Getting a genuine laugh from people is a lot of work. Timing, delivery. To take a very basic observation and present it in such a way that gets a crowd to snort and chuckle is a quest unto itself. A bad joke or weak delivery can stink up the house real quick. Drama is the same way. A combination of a solid performance of at least passable material is required to illicit a positive response from the audience. Stilted line delivery can suck any and all emotion out of a romantic scene between lovers. Cringe-worthy dialog can lead even the most tense moment into melodrama and result in laughs from an audience. Even action requires a strong understanding of framing, editing, pacing in addition to solid choreography. An action scene is a story unto itself. The fight. The chase, be it toward a goal or away from an antagonist. It's a story within a story. And a poorly shot action sequence will not keep an audience on the edge of their seats. Weak stunt work will not get them to cheer. A poorly framed or edited punch will look fake and break the illusion. But scaring people is easy. We're all afraid of something. We all are hardwired to feel things like anxiety and stress. And to trigger such things isn't hard because it involves primitive responses to stimuli that have kept us alive generation after generation. This is why a jump scare will work on many if not most people. A video with a sudden, disturbing image and a loud audio cue is no different to the human brain than a wolf jumping out of the bushes. Horror doesn't necessarily require an emotional response so much as it does a physical and chemical response. Empathy with any of Freddy's victim isn't required to enjoy A Nightmare on Elm Street. Stilted delivery won't necessarily detract from the gore or jump scare. So long as your nervous system is lighting up and your body is flooded with things like adrenaline, the scene or story works just fine. This is why a lot of storytellers, a lot of filmmakers can cut their teeth with horror and transition to something else. All the basic ingredients are there for a good movie. Lighting. Music. Framing. It's an entry level attempt at all the emotional manipulation required in dramas and comedy. But the bar is set so low for an effective horror movie that even a weak effort can be seen as a success. Low-budgets also help convince studios to take risks on inexperienced talent. A lot of directors and actors started off in horror. Dementia 13 was one of Francis Ford Coppola's first directing jobs. Spielberg made a name for himself with Jaws. That [guy]( URL_5 ) who helped bring one of the most successful superhero franchises of all time to the big screen started off making a no-budget horror flick with his brother and big-chinned friend where a tree rapes a girl. And the dude with the two highest grossing films of [all time]( URL_3 ) started off making a sequel to a movie about killer fish, then did a movie about a killer robot, and then did a sequel about killer aliens before doing a movie about a killer robot fighting another killer robot. Not to mention the likes of actors like [Johnny Depp]( URL_1 ), [Jennifer Connelly]( URL_11 ), [Kevin Bacon]( URL_12 ), and [Crispin Glover]( URL_6 ) who all got early breaks in horror. Or even established talent that find themselves diving into (or even returning to) horror like [Gary Oldman]( URL_7 ), [Frank Langella]( URL_10 ), [Willem Dafoe]( URL_8 ), and [Sir Ian McKellen]( URL_2 ). Scaring people is easy. And even the most [mundane]( URL_4 ), [uneventful] ( URL_0 ), [low-reaching]( URL_9 ) horror films can become runaway successes. It isn't the talent involved. It isn't the story failing to make an impact. It's that anyone with a camera and a few friends can make it happen and garner some attention. Of course, like all other genres it takes a lot of work and effort and talent to master the horror genre. So few names have managed to do it compared to others. When everyone can be scared, when we all share so many of the same fears, it takes a real creative mind to present something so daringly unsettling that it not only perseveres for years to come but also illicit the same emotional response. King, Barker, Lovecraft, Poe, Romero, Craven, Hooper, Carpenter, and so many others have mastered the genre. Some stick around and love to play in the same sandbox time and again. Others move on to the next challenge, maybe returning now and then when the mood strikes them. It isn't that horror isn't respected. It's that scaring people isn't hard. Keeping people afraid is. And so few manage to do it just right.


Answer

There's a bit of a problem with the horror genre, and this problem is the writing. How many horror movies do you know that are genuinely scary purely because of the writing? There are a few, but not many. All the other movies depend on gruesome visuals, "scary" music and maybe a jumpscare here and there to keep you on the edge of your seat, but these are all easily picked apart gimmicks. I think there's a movie called mama or mother or something which I saw a while ago with friends of mine, despite being drunk and an easily frightened baby it just didn't do anything for me. The premise was stupid at best in my opinion, the scares were easily predictable, the music was cliché. It was a decent movie by all means but it was just so standard and come on: Do we trust hollywood to make a movie that is unconventional and doesn't follow a predetermined checklist? These are the movies that make the best horror but they are a risk and Hollywood doesn't take risks.


Answer

Honestly, I think it's because fear is a deeply personal, uncomfortable feeling for a lot of people. When a film attempts to frighten you and it fails, it's easy to feel insulted. When a film attempts to frighten people and succeeds, they don't always enjoy it. People often compare sense of fear to sense of humor, inasmuch as there's a certain amount of compulsion to it. You don't choose to laugh and you don't choose to be afraid. You just respond to the stimulus you're taking in, and the reaction is involuntary. Beyond that, even among horror fans, there's a lot of variance. Some people like torture porn, some people are all about jump scares, some people just want to see badass monsters, and then you've got guys like me who prefer to be scared long after the movie is over, when the plot or characters linger in the back of your mind.


Answer

I thought the premise of The Purge was incredibly wasted. It's interesting, brings out the worst in people, and just bleeds suspense. But then they go and lock the family in the house and then it's a simple home invasion horror story. If they had done something such as a family going camping far away and losing track of time before the Purge, realize the date, and then have them flee terrible people while trying to get back home to safety - that would have been something worth watching.


Answer

For an example, look at the horror movie "You're Next". Mild spoilers will follow, but nothing significant. So, this family is getting attacked while they're eating dinner, from outside the house, and their plan is to let their daughter sprint barefoot out of the house in hopes of like... I dunno, running and getting help or something? And no character in that movie stops and says "Hey, this is fucking stupid. Seriously." She sprints out the door and garrotes herself on a wire in the door frame, and everyone is like "Oh man, who would've thought her running unarmed into the area where our assailants are, with no foot protection in the woods would've ended tragically!?" Some can absolutely argue that You're Next is a healthy dose of tongue in cheek, but like Shawn of the Dead, it's poking fun at it's brethren. It's hard for critics and stuff to accept horror movies as legitimate story telling devices when you have movies like The Strangers, wherein the bad guys do things that the protagonists never actually notice that immediately reminds your brain that you're watching a movie. Horror films are typically pretty cheap to produce, and ever since the Blair Witch Project, they've gotten cheaper, to the point where we can all enjoy "Skype, the horror movie" this weekend.. BWP made absolute bank because it was full of no names. Paranormal activity, Saw, all of them lack pretty significant names, in order to save more on money. And finally, horror movies are polarizing. Myself and my wife love to watch them, but none of my friends do. They hate horror movies, they hate how the movies make them feel, even when the movie is blatantly not scary (this is subjective, but for me it's movies such as the aforementioned You're Next and The Strangers). Why spend a lot of money and effort when you have giant swathes of people who write it off instantly because they don't like horror?


Answer

Because the bulk of horror has more in common with pornography than with regular cinema. What I mean is, there is a tendency in the genre to set up a scenario *just* enough to get the horror going and then it coasts on cheap scares and senseless gore until the end. It relies on a loose plot whose only purpose is to get the audience some standard-issue thrills. That's not to say that there aren't great horror films, because by god there really are some amazing ones, but that the pornographic aspect of horror tends to not only taint the perception of the genre, but also bleed into the rest of the genre itself. People become so accustomed with *that* being horror that they feel ripped off when they go to the theater and that's not what they see. Think the "that wasn't even scary" crowd. As a result you either get amazing movies that fall under the radar or movies that, because they are so "good" are not considered horror. As an example of this I would use "Black Swan". One could make a solid argument for it being a horror movie in the purest sense. But few consider it as such. Because it's "good", and horror is "bad". And because horror has jump scares and dim lighting. So my answer I guess is that the genre is a vicious cycle turned on itself.


Answer

It can be argued that Horror is a genre which doesn't need to be respected in order to be successful, so horror movies don't always go for that. They are usually cheap to make and have a niche audience that they don't have to really try new things with to entertain. Lack of originality and creativity also seem to be an issue. Creativity generally arises in new methods of being gory (which seems to be heavily looked down upon) and many horror films carry a negative mark of exploitation. Horror movies which are considered respected either try new things and play with a formula (like Cabin in the Woods or Scream) or are layered with other genre's (like how Silence of the Lambs is a "thriller" despite following the slasher film formula very closely). There's also just a general public and critical misunderstanding and prejudice which I actually think is a big issue. When Psycho and Peeping Tom were first released they were ostracized for exploiting violence, but later reviews and rewatching over the years people start saying that they are masterpieces of film making. Film critics often struggle to tell the difference between exploitation and art I guess? Turning up big money ties back to my point of it being niche. Horror is successful because its cheap, big budget includes big risks which studios don't generally want to go for. A lot of fans would love a big budget movie, especially if its a crossover work, like an Avengers for Horror movies.


Answer

I'd say it has something to do with the fact that it's the hardest genre to do well (and that's not hyperbole, I assert that horror is the *most* difficult genre). It's incredibly difficult to make a scary film, and the nuances that make it possible can also be prohibitive towards other aspects of good film making. It's hard to tell a story, and maintain good suspenseful pacing, and foster a tone that speaks to the fears of your audience all at the same time. As a result: a lot of B-movies are horrors/ thrillers, which may have degraded respect for the genre over the years. It's too bad really, B-movies are one of my favorite categories of film, and deserver more respect in my opinion. More people should give them the appreciation they deserve (I am of course talking about *good* B-movies: the Room, anything directed by Peter Jackson, Shrooms, etc).


Answer

Because horror cliches with rare exceptions are just plain stupid. Like why does the bad stuff always happen in the dark?... are you telling me angry ghosts can't haunt during the day? There's that movie Fear Dot Com that was dark EVERYWHERE, even inside the police station... so many other cliches as well, like the old open up the mirror to take something out of the medicine cabinet, close it to find a murderer standing behind you in the reflection... There's only a few movies that come to mind as horror done well. Alien, The Shining, The Blair Witch Project, The Ring... probably a couple more I can't think of at the moment.


Answer

There was a time when high caliber actors did films like that. Jack Nicholson was 22 years past his first real movie credit when he told Wendy he wouldn't hurt her if she'd just give him the bat. Those exceptions aside, as someone pointed out, horror films generally depend on either fear or women in skimpy clothing who make stupid decisions, often while babysitting someone else's kids in someone else's home. That sort of discourages actors with pride from taking those roles.


Answer

I've learned to read between the lines of rating scores. Sites like Rotten Tomatoes are never going to give a horror film much above a 7. So realistically, anything over 5 might be worth looking into. With regular movies it's more like anything above a 7 might be worth seeing.


Answer

Silence of the Lambs was respected. It just takes a film with good writing, and most horror films don't put much effort into the plot/dialogue.


Answer

Recent exception... The Conjuring. Really slick cinematography, real scares and an insane climax. Also, has anyone checked out Housebound?


Answer

Show me a horror movie with a deep subplot beyond "run away and die a bunch".


Answer

Because most of the horror films are absurdly overdone cliches.


Answer

It's easy to make a horror film but difficult to make a good one. Many horrors tend to stick very tight to their foundations and often stick to their respective audiences, in recent years I've found myself looking for foreign horrors such as french extremism to get a good one. But i'd say the main reason is too few horrors try to break conventions or they purposefully do it and make sure you know about it. A cabin in the woods is a good horror for me as it explains this very by just being as it shows everything that is good and bad about horror. Quite often if i watch one with the misses it's all about the one with the brutal kills and the messed up stuff, i try to watch a proper horror and she finds it boring which leads on to the next point. Many film critics just don't know how to review it, horror critics will do it as a horror whilst film critics try to place it as an action or comedy, failing that they will attempt to extract deeper meaning from a horror when one may just not exist; Sometimes all a good horror needs is a psycho with an axe, no we do not care about why, no we do not want a trilogy that explains their motivations, we just want to see some nudity and teens getting killed. So in summary I'd place it to convention overtaking the story, a deeper story means drifting from the horror elements too much which the audience may find boring. therefore story often gets put aside for the horror elements which means classical reviewers may struggle to fit the film to their method of marking; it's like giving an expert on fine wines a bottle of exclusive locally produced ale and expecting a review, yes it's alcohol but not quite a fine Bordeaux


Answer

The same traits of horror movies that are used in EVERYTHING (ex. jump scares is the main one, excess blood, running from stuff, etc.) have been used time and time again for decades. It's no wonder that these movies have burnt out so quickly; so few of them are actually memorable or good anymore, and a lot of them end up being super cheesy and weird (I remember when I watched Cabin in the Woods, it was good to start but then by the end I was like . . . what?). I'm a fan of psychological thrillers myself. These tend to be a lot more horrifying than actual "horror" movies, as they play with your thoughts and really make you think about stuff. Some of my favorite darker psychological films are those of Darren Aronofsky (Requiem for a Dream, Pi). I also really liked the Cube films (kinda obscure trilogy, but pretty good films). Last House on the Left is also a good thriller. Everything else these days, in the pure sense of "horror", without bringing thriller into it, tends to just be "social media is evil!" and "oh no there's a murderer in town!" Kinda depressing to see that horror movies haven't changed much since the 20th century.


Answer

It's true that there haven't been many good high budget horror movies recently, but there are LOTS of low budget/indie or foreign productions that are actually very clever, with great storytelling, acting and effects. Martyrs is an excellent example of a film that can be extremely brutal, terrifying and gruesome, but it's also incredibly smart in its social commentary. Lake Mungo is another unknown gem that explores and analyzes the concept of grief through a pretty scary ghost story. A Tale of Two Sisters is another amazing "horror" movie with similar themes... And I could go on. As for why the horror genre in general isn't more respected, I'd say it's pretty obvious. Most people who watch horror movies just want to be scared or grossed out. They want to see stupid people get their well deserved gruesome deaths, they want to see scary ghosts jump at them, get their adrenaline rush and leave. They don't want to feel bad, to actually *think* about death, grief, and all those other heavy themes that a clever horror movie would include. It's just much easier to produce and sell a movie that's basically 100% blood/jumpscares.


Answer

Horror as a genre is respected. Hitchcock is brilliant, as well as most other classic film makers. However, the horror genre today is less about plot and more about blood and guts or just how crazy the bad guy is because he's probably killing for no reason. It's not just the horror genre. Comedy has gone so far downhill, it's all dick and fart jokes followed by nutshots. Don't believe me? What was the last action film you so that wasn't totally ridiculous? Drama just gets respect for not seeming so juvenile and musicals get respect for being able to tell a story with song. What's really gripping about horror and comedy is that it hits us on such a basic level. The beauty in the cinematic art form though is to still touch upon those essential emotions while still making us feel more. Taking us on a journey. Too many movies just cash in on the lowest form of entertainment they can without trying for anything greater, and that's sad.


Answer

Why don't studios ever invest big money into horror films? --- Because, in large part, horror films these days tend to be made on gore and shock value, not on writing. Very rarely does a horror film both play to your visceral fears AND feature good writing. When it does, it's a unicorn. (Paranormal Activity had me sleeping with the lights on for months but was SO BRILLIANT.) Why don't high caliber actors/directors/writers get involved in horror films that often? -- Because most horror films in the industry suck, and horror tends to equal pulp, which isn't always that good, though I fondly do love pulp stuff.


Answer

different movies genres are trying to evoke different emotions(reactions from viewers) so horror movies try to make you scared action movies display adrenaline junkies pornographic movies want to evoke your lust Big movies use a mix of different genres. so you might need to combine a love scene with an action scene and there will probably be a lot of drama too. the more complex the emotions displayed in movies the more difficult they are to make and the more acclaimed they are. hope that makes sense for you.


Answer

It's the genre that's possibly saturated with cliches that we've seen in horror movies. Very few directors go beyond their boundaries and the ones you've mentioned were all pioneering films in the horror genre. A side note, if you haven't seen It Follows yet, be sure to check it out.


Answer

It really does come down to less originality and more non-intelligent motifs in most cases. On an opinion note, where's all the love for Saw? Probably one of the best horror movies I ever saw, especially since it was on that low of a budget.


Answer

Those movies are more like thrillers than actual horror movies. Thrillers typically do better than horror movies because they don't so much focus on people dying. Horror movies are more about gore than anything. The only exception that I know of is the original Exorcist.


Answer

A lot of my friends ask me "why the fuck would you show me this movie" that's why. I'd like to think horror buffs are just as unique and weird as me.... and because of that unpopular.


Answer

I'm curious, is there a genre that is more respected than others? Documentaries maybe? Or are you lumping all genres together and saying that horror is generally less respected than all others together?


Answer

Newer horror films that I found are the exception to the 'stupid plotline, stupid decisions, stupid everything' (if sometimes ironically) complaints: You're Next Housebound The House of the Devil


Answer

In general, people seem to enjoy being sad more than scared. To me, that mindset is counterproductive and disgusting - much like how they probably view mine.


Answer

Because horror is incompatible with polite society, and thus is looked down upon as inferior or unworthy compared to "serious" works.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Motion Picture Association of America film rating system

The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) film rating system is used in the United States and its territories to rate a film's suitability for certain audiences based on its content. The MPAA rating system is a voluntary scheme that is not enforced by law; films can be exhibited without a rating, although certain theaters refuse to exhibit non-rated or NC-17 rated films. Non-members of MPAA may also submit films for rating. Other media, such as television programs, music and video games, are rated by other entities such as the TV Parental Guidelines, the RIAA and the ESRB, respectively.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Film criticism

Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films and the film medium. The concept is often used interchangeably with that of film reviews. A film review implies a recommendation aimed at consumers, however not all film criticism takes the form of reviews.

Input

How is it that the human brain/body sometimes wakes up seconds before an alarm goes off?!

Output

Answer

Your body does have internal regulation mechanisms, I'm not a doctor and there are plenty who are who can talk more intelligently about the circadian rhythm of the body etc. The other component is psychological. What's happening is an example of confirmation bias. You've woken up a few times almost on the clock (relative to the total number of days you've ever slept in your life). Though this number is astronomical low, you only remember the times you did wake up on the minute. You bias yourself to count those times and subconsciously ignore the other times and thus you feel as though you have an ability to wake up on time. This also happens when people think that they can catch when people are looking at them. You sometimes do and sometimes don't, but the times you don't are not out of the ordinary so you forget them. Thus you only remember catching them and get a false sense of confirmation.


Answer

Do you have a set schedule, like you wake up at the same time every day?


Answer

I think it's pretty funny the top response is essentially saying you aren't experiencing the very subject of your query. It could be a variety of things, because your brain isn't completely 'off' just because you're asleep. We have a sense of time in addition to the five main senses, and it would be more beneficial to complete your current sleep cycle instead of being jarred awake by the alarm. When following a regular schedule this also occurs more often, especially if you're reaction to the alarm is frequently described as a deep hatred. Waking up at 6am every day, I experienced the same situation of getting up immediately before back when my alarm was ridiculously annoying. It felt a lot better pre-emptively shutting it off than having it interrupt my restful slumber.


Answer

I will posit that in light sleep you are aware of what is going on around you (e.g. if baby cries you will wake up) However you are constantly forgetting what you are sensing within seconds, so that when you wake you have no memories of the sleep. However if you are awoken by the alarm, you will have a memory of the seconds before the alarm, as the awakening stops the forgetting process, and so you feel you are already awake before the alarm (even though you are not) I hope this makes some sort of sense


Answer

I can tell myself to wake up at a certain time and I will wake up at that time. I think "Wake up at six" when I lay down and I will wake up at six. Might be along those lines for you also.


Answer

May somebody stop saying "our bodies have an inbuilt clock" and rather give a bit more precise argument or answer on the issue. Please.


Answer

Coincidence mixed with how long a sleep cycle is. A sleep cycle is roughly 70-90 minutes. At the end of each sleep cycle it's much easier to wake up. It's often why you feel so alert after waking up from a dream, dreams take place in the 1st stage REM and 4th stage rem (the first and last stages of a sleep cycle). Example Time: Ok so you go to bed at 10 and have an alarm set at 7. I'll call the 20 min leeway at the end of sleep cycles the Wakeup Zone (WZ). This is where your body is doing all sorts of fun stuff with histamine to regulate your sleep pattern and also where you're most likely to wakeup because its at the tail end of a sleep cycle. (Fun fact: OTA sleep drugs are just high doses of allergy meds (anti-histamines) to prevent you from waking up more often through the night.) Cycle 1. 10:00 - 11:30pm (11:10pm - 11:30pm WZ) Cycle 2. 11:30 - 1:00pm (12:40am - 1:00am WZ) Cycle 3. 1:00am - 2:30am (2:10am - 2:30am WZ) Cycle 4. 2:30am - 4:00am (3:40am - 4:00am WZ) Cycle 5. 4:00am - 5:30am (5:10am - 5:30am WZ) Cycle 6. 5:30am - 7:00am (6:40am - 7:00am WZ) Chances are you aren't really fully rested during cycles 1-4 so the likelihood of spontaneously waking up in the WZ is lower. Between 5-6 however, chances are much greater. Couple that with coincidence and you have the anomaly you describe. You only notice the time because you have an alarm set for it. In that last sleep cycle you're odds of waking up 1 minute before the alarm is 1/20. Note: This is heavily simplified, WZ is not a scientific term an its a bit more complicated than this. But at a high-level its pretty close. Source: Engineer that worked on devices/algorithms that use EEG measure activity in your brain during these periods.


Answer

The cerebellum actually contains mechanisms for rather precise timing, and several systems allow the circadian rhythm to be maintained. For example, some optic nerves route directly to the limbic system rather than the visual cortex. So background light levels can trigger wake-up. This is part of the reason why you might wake up the same time every sunny day but later on overcast days. Similar conditioning can occur with temperature, auditory input, etc. The other answers are surprising in how much they have no fucking clue what they're talking about. It's amazing.


Answer

Because that's the one time you remember. It's a bias - there are plenty of times when you're sort-of, almost half-awake, but you forget about those because you go back to deeper sleep. But when that happens right before your alarm goes off, you get fully woken up by the alarm. And then, you remember "waking up" right before the alarm. This gets more likely the more regular your schedule is.


Answer

I wake up several times every night, look at my clock, then go back to bed. I usually wake up a few minutes before my alarm goes off but it's bound to happen because of how often I wake up anyway. I can't imagine going to bed and not waking up until my alarm goes off. Maybe you wake up a lot and only remember the last time?


Answer

Just today I had my alarm set for 8:00. Woke up scared that my alarm didn't go off or that I had slept through it. Since I had to be somewhere. Looked at phone. 7:59


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Sleep

Today, many humans wake up with an alarm clock; however, people can also reliably wake themselves up at a specific time with no need for an alarm. Many sleep quite differently on workdays versus days off, a pattern which can lead to chronic circadian desynchronization. Many people regularly look at television and other screens before going to bed, a factor which may exacerbate disruption of the circadian cycle. Scientific studies on sleep have shown that sleep stage at awakening is an important factor in amplifying sleep inertia.

Input

why is the Nazi flag taboo, but Confederate flag "culture"?

Output

Answer

Only people who fly the confederate flag think it's appropriate. The rest of us go "Ah, you're one of them" and then sit somewhere else.


Answer

Because the Nazi atrocities did not occur over a long enough time span for it to become culture, plus the US has a really strong freedom of speech protection. You can, in fact, fly a Nazi flag if you really wanted to deal with the fallout (fallout not related to the legal system) That, and people are morons.


Answer

Well for one, nobody likes the Confederate flag. That's something you only see in super south states and usually flown by fucking morons. Secondly; the Confederates didn't set up extermination camps and slaughter millions of innocents.


Answer

A lot of it has to do with the mythology of "The Lost Cause". Some people, mostly but not always southerners, have nostalgia for the pre-Civil War south. Think of Gone With The Wind: beautiful women and handsome brave men walking around on elegant plantations while childlike but mostly happy slaves care for them, and are fed and clothed in return. [Never mind that this was not the norm - we're talking myths here.] The Civil War destroyed the south quite comprehensively, and it took a century to recover - if it ever really did in Mississippi and Alabama. People have a tendency to look back to a better past when their present is grim. So the idea emerged that the South had just been ground down by a tyrannical North, intent on planting its boots on the neck of freedom loving patriots, etc, etc. Add this to the actual records of the war itself, with some truly spectacular commanders (I point to Robert E. Lee, who was a brilliant commander with balls of steel - and who felt that slavery was an evil institution but still fought on that side.) plus amazing tenacity on the part of the common soldiers often well beyond what we would consider rational. People who had been so comprehensively beaten want to find some positive things in their defeat. (Note that post WW1 Germans fely that their noble soldiers had been sold out by rear echelon politicians - I'm pretty sure Hitler felt this way, but he probably tossed in the Jews as well.) And, yes, it is also a symbol for some people who are just flat racist, but the US has very strong protections for free speech, no matter how odious.


Answer

Nazism ideals included heavy interests to naturalizm to the extreme point of killing lots of innocent people. The Confederate state of America were about more than just slavery. They wanted clear definitions of states rights and felt that the north was taking away states rights when convenient. Also sectionalism and cotton trade. the south was being bullied and they revolted, it just didn't work.


Answer

My high school had a big debate over the Confederate flag, which led to it being brought to the School District and it was banned across the entire District. People who so much as had a bumper-stickers of the Confederate flag on their vehicles could no longer park in the school parking lot, that they had paid for a parking pass to use. They claimed it was heritage, not discrimination, but the whole issues stemmed from some ill-mannered kids I think the only reason I made it past a school poll was they organized a walk-out to gain media attention. I'm sure I wasn't the only one who used it as an excuse to ditch class, rather than protest


Answer

For some weird reason I keep seeing confederate flags in small towns in Norway. They are very much in to the rockabilly aesthetic bit still... It's fucking weird as fuck.


Answer

The Confederate flag is nothing like the Nazi flag. That is just a stupid comparison that people are are already prejudiced use. I think a more fair comparison is the U.S. Flag and the Battle Flag (which has been the popular Southern flag since Gone With The Wind made it popular again. Now under the U.S. Flag we have seen wars of aggression and conquest (hello Mexican War), we had a nationalistic movement that declared the U.S. had a "Manifest Destiny" to spread from sea to shining sea. The Nazis tried to exterminate the Jews, the U.S. very nearly exterminated the Native Americans. Not to mention slavery being legal in the U.S. up until the 13th Amendment to the Constitution. Also if you look at how the slave trade enriched many in the North, whether it was from the actual importation of slaves, or if it was Northern banks financing the slave trade, the whole "slavery was just a Southern evil" turns a blind eye to the North's history in relation to slavery. Segregation and racism have always been Northern problems too. In fact the most segregated schools in the U.S. are now found in the North. If you look at what has happened during the life of both flags I think there is a strong case for the U.S. Flag being more like the Nazi flag. Or another way to say it would be Yankees who live in glass houses should shut the hell up about our flag.


Answer

The Confederacy was Americans and were fighting a functionally defensive war for simple independence. Slavery was an important part of the Confederate states' culture because it was an integral part of their economy. It was considered one of the key issues they felt threatened by northern dominance of the federal government. However, they did not fight against the North in order to conquer it or exterminate blacks, but to break away from what was in their view the threat of tyranny. Racism was not the primary motivation factor of the confederacy. Economics and political power were. Contrast this with the NAZIs who were seeking explicit extermination of undesirables and expansionist policy through an all-powerful central government.


Answer

I'm from Alabama, I can give you a pretty solid answer behind this. People who's fly the confederate flag more likely than not do so because they are proud of the region they come from, and or, to pay homage to their ancestors who fought in the war. Slavery was a by product of southern farming culture. The rebel flag has nothing to do with this. The National Socialism Party, or Nazis as many refer to them as, had beliefs that revolved around eradicating other races to perpetuate the longevity and success of their own. Nazis flag is a symbol for their beliefs The Rebel flag is a symbol for a region


Answer

Its not so much a difference between the Confederates and the Nazis as a difference between how Americans and Germans view freedom of speech. Americans strongly feel people should be allowed to express their views even when they are ignorant and hateful. Germans are more comfortable with forbidding offensive ideas.


Answer

Isn't the flag we are talking about a battle flag....not the actual CSA flag? My question is: What positive spin can you attach to it?


Answer

Confederate flags are anti American. They tried to break free and be their own country


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Modern display of the Confederate battle flag

In Georgia, the Confederate battle flag was reintroduced as an element of the state flag in 1956, just two years after the Supreme Court decision "Brown v. Board of Education". It was considered by many to be a protest against school desegregation. It was also raised at the University of Mississippi (Ole Miss) during protests against integration of schools.

Input

Why do I feel like I'm going to vomit when I get really hungry?

Output

Answer

Because your blood sugar drops and you get hypoglycemic which causes the nausea or the puky feeling. a simpler way to explain this- When have been hungry for a while our bodies start slowing down to preserve nutrition. This affects blood circulation to put it simply which is why some of us feel light headed, dizzy,etc. Edit 2- another reason for nausea is the acid produced in the stomach. Excessive acid on an empty stomach can cause nausea/ vomiting as well. Edit 3- Before my inbox explodes, I would like to say I don't think Hypoglycemia is the only cause here. It's different things for different people as I explained above. We all have different tolerances towards hunger. This is not a thesis on starvation. Edit 4- link in my post below in the thread Edit 5- RIP my inbox. Not all of these things will happen if you've skipped a meal. It's different for different folks. Some of us have blood sugar issues and some don't. A person in this thread got a stroke after starving for nearly a week. So, I am not saying if you skip a meal your body will completely shut down. There are different stages of hunger. Edit- language


Answer

I get that every morning, until I sneeze. Then the feeling vanishes like magic.


Answer

It's can be caused by the acid in your empty stomach. The longer it's been since you ate the worse it can be. By the acid not having anything to digest it causes irritation to the stomach lining and lower esophagus which you feel as a sensation of nausea. This sensation tends to be worse in people with a predisposition to having acid reflux. An actual medical cause can be gastroparesis where the stomach does not empty correctly and can leave food in your stomach from meals digested during your prior meal that adds to irritation. In addition if the nausea is extremely transient, such as a sensation going back and forth between extremely hungry and nauseous quickly, it's likely a caused by a strong signal in the gastric nerves and the limited ability of our brains too correctly interpret this signal. So it is likely trying to interpret the extreme range of human gastric sensation and gets the two confused, i.e. hunger or nausea.


Answer

Question... why does this happen in obese people just as much as slim people? I feel as a big girl i should have a reserve for my blood to regulate with no? Ive tried skipping a meal and youd think my body could "afford" to not eat but no i get this pain/nausea also.


Answer

I've suffered from this almost permanently for two years now. It has totally ruined my life. I've been unable to work and have moved back in with my parents. Every month or so I feel myself for a few days but then I'm back to feeling shit. I've been to many doctors, the going hypothesis is that it's psycho somatic. I've gone along with this but this post has made me question it. I've never been tested for blood sugar. Plus, the symptoms started when I started a new diet (not on any diet any more though) . If anyone helps me solve this there's a lifetime of reddit gold in it for you. Also I will fly to your town to give you a hug.


Answer

I'd like to know this too, it's always bothered me. I'm 24, healthy, and ain't dead despite being afflicted with this 1-2 times a month since I was really young, so it obviously isn't something serious. I could never (and can't still) eat breakfast because if I try to eat that early I get sick or find the idea of eating so unappealing I can't, and usually have a big lunch. If I'm still not hungry at lunch, then I can get sick from not eating later on.


Answer

A few days ago, the weather was REALLY hot, and so I didn't really feel hungry for pretty much most of the day. In the late afternoon that day I went to the pool with a friend (since it was still hot) and I got the nauseated feeling. That feelin of nausea was really the only thing reminding me that I hadn't eaten. At first I was wondering why I felt sick, but a few minutes later realised that it was because I hadn't eaten anything (I'd had the feeling bedore for the same reason).


Answer

I think it might be your body preparing to survive without food, so It'll run on body fat and other stuff instead of food. This also happens to me when I'm not hydrated enough. Drink lotsa water!


Answer

You should see a doctor about being hypoglycemic. I am the same way, i use a glucose meter regularly to prevent myself getting to that point. Peanut butter crackers works miracles. You need protein and carbs


Answer

Your respirations, or breaths in and out, become more shallow and rapid (ex. Hyperventilating). This causes your oxygen (good air) levels to drop, and your carbon dioxide (bad air) levels in the blood to rise. Blood sugar at this time is obsolete (irrelevant). Next time you feel angry, try to focus on slowing down your breaths. You will not get nauseous. Edit: Holy shit I read this wrong. Hungry not angry. I wondered why everyone was getting so off topic. Agree with first comment. Your blood sugars are not consistent. If you keep glucose levels...uh, level throughout the day you should never have that feeling. In other words, eat small meals every 2-3 hrs, even if you are fat. And don't freaking starve yourself. It's lame.


Answer

Cause your stomach is trying to digest your stomach.


Answer

Another reason is that your gut produces very powerful contractions in a starved state, trying to squeeze out every little bit of food in your system. This causes the rumbling feeling. Also you would be hypoglycemic, causing your brain to not get the supply it's demanding, making you lightheaded. Along with that, in a starved state your body starts to break down fat and protein, changing the pH of your blood. All those reasons and a lot of other metabolic changes cause you to feel sick.


Answer

This used to happen to me all the time, multiple times a day. And occasionally I would actually puke. I was eating every hour or so to make sure I was never hungry because whenever I got hungry I would almost instantly get nauseous. Turns out I was hyperthyroid and my metabolism was way too fast for my body. I'm now at normal levels of TSH, T4 and T3 and haven't had a problem since!


Answer

Can someone tell me why this never happens to me? I can starve myself to the point where you pass that hunger stage and you just forget about it but I've never, EVER, felt nauseous because of it.


Answer

I always thought it was because your stomach in anticipation of food starts producing more acids to digest and the acid makes you feel pukey.


Answer

I get this feeling right when I wake up. Then I drink my coffee and I am good for another 2 hours or so.


Answer

What would be the best way to combat this without eating? Before anyone expresses concern, I'm not asking bc I have an eating disorder or want to adopt any unhealthy habits, but I have been practicing intermittent fasting and occasional cleanses (which I enjoy and don't need anyone's opinion on) but my biggest challenge is that nauseous feeling. I'm not hungry, don't want to eat, enjoy fasting, but I end up eating just bc I am dry heaving through a shower in the morning. I'll usually drink some orange juice, which helps & now makes sense to me, but my main reason for fasting is to occasionally break a sugar/carb addiction, so it kinda defeats the purpose to have to eat something really sweet.


Answer

FYI Caffeine impedes insulin, raising blood sugar, and also has an anorexic effect (in many people). If you consume caffeine without eating you're doubling the effects of the low-blood sugar crash, especially finding food disgusting.


Answer

Someone correct me if I'm wrong here, but I always thought it was from both your blood sugar dropping and your stomach acids churning around in there.


Answer

Glad someone ask this I always feel like puking if I get to hungry then i get really bad stomach cramps.


Answer

It's probably because your digestive juices are starting to get irritated from not giving it food to break down.


Answer

I would like to know why the same feeling occurs when I get really sleepy.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Adipsia

Adipsia, also known as hypodipsia, is a symptom of inappropriately decreased or absent feelings of thirst. It involves an increased osmolality or concentration of solute in the urine, which stimulates secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the hypothalamus to the kidneys. This causes the person to retain water and ultimately become unable to feel thirst. Due to its rarity, the disorder has not been the subject of many research studies.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Nausea

Nausea is an unpleasant, diffuse sensation of unease and discomfort, often perceived as an urge to vomit. While not painful, it can be a debilitating symptom if prolonged, and has been described as placing discomfort on the chest, upper abdomen, or back of the throat.

Input

why do car companies make insanely cool concept cars and then when the cars are released to market, they look like regular old cars?

Output

Answer

Concept cars are usually hand-built. They often don't meet all the regulatory requirements for things like safety features and they may not even have engines if they're only going to be displayed at an indoor show. The purpose is to build hype for a future model and/or show off some new technology or styling feature. The final production model, if there is one, will usually include a few elements from the concept.


Answer

Have you ever seen video/photos of a fashion show and the clothing looks totally ridiculous? That's because fashion shows are for fashion insiders, but consumers, as a whole, don't want to buy something that deviates too much from normal. Auto designs are like that. The car companies don't want to change designs too radically for fear it will hurt sales.


Answer

There's a good reason that all cars look pretty much the same; after decades of refinement, the engineering behind cars has largely coalesced into a set of common features and designs that are simply the best and most liked by consumers. Combine that with restrictions around safety regulations, and you end up with pretty much all cars being pretty much the same.


Answer

There have been a couple of unusual-looking concept cars that eventually hit the market, like the Plymouth Prowler and Chrysler PT Cruiser. But I think car manufacturers are reluctant to make anything too radically different from the average car. Car designs change over time, but very gradually. Like if you put a 2016 model next to a 2015 or 2014, there's not much difference. But it's very different compared to a 1986 or 1976. Cars that look too different all of a sudden may not sell as well.


Answer

Concept cars are like a car fashion show. They basically are saying "forget about cost and practicality, let's make something cool and innovative." Once thing have completed this expensive exercise in creativity, they see what ideas can be incorporated into their regular line up.


Answer

Price. With a concept car its art, with the product its business. The company has a box of parts, and adding anything new is expensive. So you end up with rehashes of the same thing with just a different cheap plastic bumper put on it.


Answer

It is not necessary that if you create a concept it will come in the market. Concepts are ways to test different types of Technology's and their limits.


Answer

Car buyers generally don't like drastic change year to year. So the futuristic Mustang would likely not sell to those buyers who purchase Mustangs every two years.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Pre-production car

Pre-production cars are vehicles that allow the automaker to find problems before a new model goes on sale to the public. Pre-production cars come after prototypes, or development mules which themselves are preceded by concept cars. Pre-production vehicles are followed by production vehicles in the mass production of them for distribution through car dealerships.

Input

Why can a far-sighted person just walk into a store and pick out the pair of reading glasses that matches their vision, but a near-sighted person has to go to the doctor and get a prescription?

Output

Answer

They can. A far-sighted person just needs the near-point of focus brought near enough so they can read. You can easily check this yourself, and it doesn't matter what it does to your vision for other distances, because you take them off for other purposes. A near-sighted person needs the exact amount of adjustment to correct their far-focus to infinity. (Without glasses, my far-focus point is about 10 inches.) Any increase in strength beyond that will move their near-focus point further out, so they can't read. They have to wear their glasses all the time, so this would be intolerable. Near-sighted people generally are capable of the full range of accommodation; it's just that the set-point is wrong so that it doesn't match the real world requirement. One you fix the set-point, they can have basically perfect vision. When people need reading glasses as they get older, it's because the lenses in their eyes have gotten less flexible. They no longer have the full range of accommodation. This means that they can not regain perfect vision with a single change to the set-point, so getting it exactly right is less important, and as I said, you can do it roughly yourself. EDIT: The other part of the equation is the people who wear strong corrective lenses all the time want designer frames, special high-refractive-index glass and correction of up to 10 diopters or more. That's why my glasses are an order of magnitude (or two) more expensive than pharmacy reading glasses. OK it does feel like a bit of a scam sometimes.


Answer

It's all about use. OTC reading glasses are usually used for a short period of time. If needed for an extended period, or by a person with astigmatism, prescription glasses will reduce eye strain and headaches. Near-sighted people need to wear glasses to walk around, drive a vehicle, and recognize a familiar person's face before s/he is too close to avoid. If near-sighted people could just grab a pair of glasses off the shelf without anyone checking to make sure their pupils are centered in the lenses, any astigmatism is corrected, and the glasses fit correctly, there would be many more people driving around believing their vision is fully corrected when it isn't.


Answer

Reading glasses fall into the "good enough" category. They work good enough to get the job done. But they aren't as good as prescription glasses. I'm nearsighted and I use "reading glass" style goggles when open water swimming. It's the same idea as reading glasses. They're good enough that I can kind-of see when I'm trying to sight a course in the water, but they don't give me perfect vision.


Answer

Optometrist here. It is legal to buy "reading glasses" only b cause it is legal to buy a magnifying glass (plus power) and to buy two of them held in the same frame. Manufacturers make them between +1.00 to +3.00 because that's what sells. Easy and cheap to make... Cheap to sell bare minimum. ANSI standards require dress frames to a certain durability; not routinely checked. If you're blurry, why is it blurry? Is it simply out of focus? If so, how much? Is it spherical or astigmatic? Higher order aberrations? Do you have a disease? If so, what kind? Corneal, like keratoconus? Lenticular, like cataracts or a subluxation from a systemic disease? What about macular degeneration? A retinal tear? What if it's a melanoma or even a pituitary adenoma? I've even caught a large glioma... There's a reason why glasses are considered a medical device. It's mostly so people get blurred vision checked out. They're free to get them wherever. Like food, you can go dirt cheap but it doesn't mean it's good for you... Edit: prior to hate. You get what you pay for with glasses, sometimes. Lenses are where to put the money, especially if you have a greater need. My advice, as with most things: get the best that you can afford... I don't care, personally. #shoplocal... But please make sure you're staying healthy and check yourself out regularly.


Answer

Reading glasses are just magnifying glasses. You can buy these in the toy section. Distance glasses correct for "fuzzy" vision far away and for astigmatism. Astigmatism means the cornea has two curved axes, i.e., it is shaped like a football rather than a basketball. The lens in distance glasses starts as a disc ground with two curvatures. Then the optician takes the disc and determines how to cut out the lens so that it sits in the frame correctly aligned with the astigmatism. Not available in the toy section.


Answer

Isn't it rare that both eyes require the same correction for near sighted people? This would make it harder to do OTC. I sure hope we can 3D print our own at some point.


Answer

Well, with astigmatism the rotation of the glass lens has a big effect on how well the lenses work. You can rotate the lens slightly clockwise or counter clockwise and it will stop working even if it's the right prescription. So that might be one aspect of it.


Answer

Doctors should probably be the ones determining your prescription if your driving is dependent on it. Reading, on the other hand - not quite so deadly.


Answer

People that wear drug-store glasses are generally (but not exclusively) older folks that basically have good vision. Their eyes have been fine their whole lives, but normal age-related changes to their eyes, for example, the small muscles that change the shape of their lens to see objects close up, change or fail. So they can still basically see 'fine' more or less over very large distances. They can see a police officer half a mile down the highway, and they can read writing on a chalkboard in a classroom. It's just when they read or look at things close up, their eyes cannot "accommodate" so they have to throw on glasses that do the work their eye muscles used to do. People (like me) that have to wear glasses all the time have problems in a bunch of different ways. The shape of our eyes can be fouled up, e.g. oval instead of round, or the lenses in our eyes can be focusing the light on the wrong part of the back of our eyes, plus many more ways... Another way of looking at it is, people that need reading glasses need help controlling their eyes over like 12-15 inches, or however far you hold a book from your face, whereas people who are able to see near objects, but not far away, need help controlling their eyes over distances of between one foot, and like twenty feet. ------ Old people with reading glasses have eyes that fail in one very specific way that affects their vision over a short range of distances. Young people who wear glasses all day everyday have eyes that fail either in one specific way that affects their vision over long distances, or in many ways that affect their vision over long distances


Answer

OTC reading glasses as far as I know don't correct for astigmatism either they just have plus sphere. I know there are glasses out there that can adjust for -6 to +6 sphere ( URL_0 ) but they also leave out cylinder.


Answer

They can't. Those reading glasses will not match the far sighted persons vision prescription. It will just be close enough for them to read.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Corrective lens

Although lenses are normally prescribed by optometrists or ophthalmologists, there is evidence from developing countries that allowing people to select lenses for themselves produces good results in the majority of cases and is less than a tenth of the cost of prescription lenses.

Input

Why are yawns so contagious? ELI5

Output

Answer

Nobody knows exactly why we yawn. It is not as good as getting oxygen to your lungs as actual breathing. The closest anyone has ever gotten to explain it is that it is something social. If you yawn when you see someone else do it, you're subconsciously communicating that you both belong to the same group and are not a threat. "See, I yawned, I'm just as tired as you. Don't see me as a threat"


Answer

I yawned when I read this question as well. EDIT: Apologies for this making it to top comment. I realise this isn't Ask Reddit and I'm sorry I didn't contribute anything useful in answering this question.


Answer

I read somewhere once (tried to find it but can't) that our yawning is a left over defense mechanism from when we were primates. The yawning acted like a wake up mechanism that was a signal to try to stay alert when we were on "look out duty". URL_0 Edit: found a link.


Answer

Yawning stretches a set of muscles that don't get stretched in regular activity, for instance, the Eustachian Tubes, which are lined with mucous. And just like your nose, that mucous needs to drain occasionally too. Stretching those muscles by yawning helps the mucous drain, maintain proper air pressure in your inner ear & helps the muscles remain limber. It is contagious because it is a sensation we all share, consciously or not.


Answer

One time I yawned when I used the little "yawning" emoticon. I told this to my coworkers and BF and it was agreed that I have very little will power :(


Answer

FYI - human yawns are contagious to many dogs as well. URL_0


Answer

When I read the question I yawned. See guys, I'm harmless- even on the Internet.


Answer

I don't think we have a solid answer on why we yawn. BUT, I read somewhere that yawning's contagiousness has a lot to do with empathy. When you see someone, like your best friend or your mummy and daddy, yawn you react, without even realising it, by yawning. It's like when someone waves at you and you wave back, only instead of saying "hello" you're saying "I'm tired." Even more interesting is that just like when someone waves at you, the less you know a person, the less likely you are to yawn in response. [Sauce]( URL_0 )


Answer

Can't believe I have yawned twice already. It hasn't even been a minute since I opened this thread. Thrice now. Fuck!


Answer

Yawns are a form of nonverbal communication, similar to how furrowing your brow indicates anger. One of the things that is interesting about the contagious nature of yawns is that they are the only social signal contagious outside the bounds of perceived social rank. That means that you might be just as likely to "catch" a yawn from a wino as you are from a new boss that you are trying to impress. Other signals, such as laughing, are less likely to be passed on from those that you consider socially inferior, whether consciously or not. you are more likely to laugh at a joke your date makes than that dick in the office, even if you do have to admit he's got a pretty good sense of humor. The theory that I like best about yawns is that they are remnants from evolutionary history. They signaled when it was time for your ape ancestors to bed down for the night. Since a pack of apes is more likely to survive when they cooperate on things such as guarding each other from hyenas while sleeping it is useful to pass on.


Answer

Interesting fun fact: Children with autism are immune from contagious yawning. Experts believe that it has something to do with social awareness and/or empathy (citation needed - cbf looking it up now). Apparently psychopaths do get contagious yawning, which led experts to believe it had more to do with social awareness rather than empathy.


Answer

Some say it's empathy and mirror neurons. Wiki: Yawn


Answer

[Mass Effect 2 told me why.]( URL_0 })


Answer

Well, humans and other mammals like cats, dogs, and rats all yawn, so all these descriptions of yawning being a complex social cue or a remnant from our pre-human ape-like ancestors is suspect. Yawning probably started much earlier along in evolution, probably among the first proto-mammals. So why might yawining be so contagious, let alone exist in the first place? I can only speculate, really, but I'd guess it's a signal to synchronize the activity cycles of a group of mammals. Especially if you're one of the earliest, tiniest mammals, you don't want to be out and scurrying about all by yourself at bad times when predators could be out to get you. Yawning was probably a way for these mammals, who generally lived in packs, to keep the group strong by signaling to each other "hey, don't go out, it's bedtime". The yawn is probably contagious to ensure that the signal propagates.


Answer

Your mind naturally copies things that other people do when you like them. You're more likely to copy someone as they check the time, drink, stretch, or preform any other simple action within your eyesight. Yawning is just another simple action that you uncontrollably mimic due to a certain type of cell in your brain.


Answer

I heard one time that yawns were the body's way of getting oxygen. So of one person takes extra oxygen, then a person close by has less oxygen, and they need to yawn to get more oxygen. See how that makes sense?


Answer

I yawned when I read this. I had a teacher in elementary school tell us it was because we had too much carbon dioxide in our lungs and that's how we got it out. Yep...


Answer

I've been in the psychology/biology research field for about a decade and the research on positive correlations between "levels of empathy" and likelihood of yawning is a fairly accepted position. [sources]( URL_0 )


Answer

You yawn to balance the pressure between your head and the outside. When you so this, it offsets the pressure for others so they have to do the same.


Answer

Haha, yawn is such a funny word. Yawn yawn yawn. *yaaawwwwwn* Dangit.


Answer

Since I started reading this discussion, I've yawned 5 times.


Answer

I just yawned from reading about all this yawning.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Globalization and disease

Measles is a highly contagious airborne virus spread by contact with infected oral and nasal fluids. When a person with measles coughs or sneezes, he releases microscopic particles into the air. During the 4- to 12-day incubation period, an infected individual shows no symptoms, but as the disease progresses, the following symptoms appear: runny nose, cough, red eyes, extremely high fever and a rash.

Input

How much does a guilty criminal confess for his/her lawyer?

Output

Answer

It depends on the person really. Some people will admit things and let us do our jobs. Other think they only need to outsmart their own lawyers and the issues will go away, because they think the prosecution and judge won't care for some reason. A lot of them spend much of the time trying to fool us or convince us, and get upset when we point out obvious flaws in their stories. Most people will tell a distorted version of the truth, which contains both admissions and twists to make it 'excusable'. Of course what they think is 'excusable' is often totally different to what the law thinks.


Answer

If you want the best possible defense from your lawyer, don't admit your crime to them. It's up to the state to prove you guilty, not your lawyer to prove you innocent. So keep your trap shut. A defense attorney cannot lie to the court. Even though you are paying them, they are still an officer of the court.


Answer

You tell the lawyer everything because speech between you and your lawyer is privileged and cannot under nearly every circumstance be used against you. Lieing in court is a good way to end up in jail for perjury.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Police perjury

Police perjury (or testilying in United States police slang) is the act of a police officer giving false testimony. It is typically used in a criminal trial to "make the case" against a defendant believed by the police to be guilty when irregularities during the suspect's arrest or search threaten to result in acquittal.

Input

How do resealable aluminum cans work and why aren't they the norm?

Output

Answer

As /u/TorturedChaos says the cost of manufacturing is just too high. So the cost/benefit is way out of whack. An ali can fits it's intended purpose so well, you should really check out this video: URL_0 They really are a fucking cool example of modern manufacturing and the evolution of a single product over time.


Answer

The one I saw had a plastic tab that could be popped out to drinking the pushed back into place to close the can. Other option is those aluminum can bottles that have a twist off cap that can be screwed back into place. In both cases they are rare because of increased cost to manufacturer. Your standard aluminum can is an engineering marvel that has developed over the last 100 yrs or so. It takes the absolute minimum amount of aluminum to make the can and still be strong and durable enough transport. Every aspect of it has been engineered for a specific purpose.


Answer

Some energy drinks and half litter beverages has a resealable lid, that rotates over and off the hole. The reason they aren't the norm is that they are more expensive to produce, and often you don't need to reseal a 33cl can, as you will drink all of it in one sitting.


Answer

Because things in aluminum cans are single serve and generally consumed in one sitting. There is no need for the extra expense to make something resealable when 99% of the people will never actually need to reseal it.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Recycling rates by country

The following table gives the percentages of material that is recycled, incinerated, incinerated to produce energy and landfilled.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Aluminium recycling

A common practice since the early 1900s and extensively capitalized during World War II, aluminium recycling is not new. It was, however, a low-profile activity until the late 1960s, when the exploding popularity of aluminium beverage cans finally placed recycling into the public consciousness.

Input

why do experts say to grab vertical ropes when climbing nets?

Output

Answer

Stability. The horizontal ropes will bend and cause a lot more sway in the net if you grab them. You can picture how a horizontal rope will bend to make a "smile" shape when you put your weight on it. The vertical rope will be put under tension and won't deform like this.


Answer

My brother was taught during his basic training (British army) When jumping to a climbing net don't try to grab the net with your hand but instead put your arms through the spaces in between the ropes and hug/hook the net with your arms.


Answer

2 reasons. Horizontal pieces deflect more than vertical pieces. Also, the soldier above you is standing on the horizontal pieces. If he slips, he's standing on your hand.


Answer

It depends on how the rope ladder is configured. If the rope ladder is secured only at two points, the center of balance is directly in the center of the ladder. This means it is highly mass and prone to flipping/swaying. This means you need to keep your own center of mass directly along that center of balance to prevent swaying/flipping. The best way to do this is to use the verticle ropes, as it makes it easier for you to center yourself. If the rope net is configured so that it's secured at four points (as it should be), you don't really need to worry about this particular aspect, as the center of balance is the entire width of the rope ladder/net. As long as you keep three points of contact, you should be just fine. Here is a short video describing the first type of rope ladder/net that I described, and how it's used against you during the popular carnival game. It has lots of lines/models to show you the idea with visual influences. URL_0


Answer

Also, the little finger has the tightest grip on the hand, so you have a firmer grip in a position where you can maximize the use of the little finger. (Source: often repeated by my various martial arts instructors with regard to holding various weapons, although I just checked online, and the internet is apparently arguing about whether it is true. My own experience backs it though. The other fingers just aren't as good at holding onto a slender object being jerked around.). Having your wrist twisted as happens in a horizontal position also decreases your strength. You can block an attack with much less effort if you are holding a sword vertically than if you are holding it horizontally. Logically that applies to ropes also.


Answer

The little finger is visibly capable of closing tighter than the other fingers - it has smaller bones and there is less distance between joints.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Dynamic rope

A dynamic rope is a specially constructed, somewhat elastic rope used primarily in rock climbing, ice climbing, and mountaineering. This 'stretch' is what makes it 'dynamic', in contrast to a static rope that has very low elongation under load. Greater stretch allows a dynamic rope to absorb the energy of a sudden load such as from a fall more slowly, reducing the peak force and therefore the chance of catastrophic failure. Kernmantle ropes are the most common type of dynamic rope, and nylon has replaced all natural materials such as hemp (Manila rope) since 1945 for durability and strength.

Input

Almost every radio station across North America can be live streamed via the web. Why isn't this the case for tv channels?

Output

Answer

Radio uses less bandwidth. Streaming cost are lower. Most tv stations get money from cable and satellite companies. They dont want to jepordize that money by using live streaming. OTA companies have already partnered with hulu and other companies.


Answer

Over 850 radio stations are controlled by one company. They can make one program to distribute what they already have rights to. Being so big means that they can have the rights and contracts written in their favor as no one wants to lose revenue by not being on such a huge number of markets.


Answer

None of these answers are correct. A song copyright has several different parts: the right to display publicly, the right to reproduce, the right to distribute, the right to perform, and the right to make derivative works. Most musicians handle the performance aspect of their work by enlisting a Performance Rights Organization (ASCAP, BMI, SESAC). These organization handle the payment of PERFORMANCE ROYALTIES, which come from the licenses that businesses and radio stations need to play music. Restaurant of a certain size playing music? You need to a blanket license. Radio station? You need a license. Concert venue? You need a license. A blanket license allows a venue or business to play all of the songs in BMI or ASCAP's catalogs –the rate dependent on venue size, audience, etc. Now what makes this interesting is that terrestrial radio is unique from the internet in that terrestrial radio pays no performance royalties for the MASTER RECORDING of songs on the radio. When you listen to a song, the song is two copyrights: the COMPOSITION COPYRIGHT (the actual composition of the song, the melody, the lyrics) and the MASTER COPYRIGHT (the copyright for the actual recording itself. Often owned by the label). Imagine that Kesha has a song on the radio with millions of plays, but she didn't write it. She will receive NO performance royalties for her song on the radio. Instead, the songwriters will receive all the terrestrial performance royalties on the radio. This is due to master recordings not actually having a copyright until around 1972. The digital space changed this loophole because digital radio is not really "radio" in the legal definition of the word. However, for non interactive radio streams (e.g. a online broadcast of the terrestrial broadcast), these streams can still stream songs with a performance license –they just need to pay performance license fees for the master recordings as well. Television is not nearly as cut and dry as music is administering broadcasting rights. First of all, TV shows have tons of different copyrights going on. They have music. They have logos. They have a whole bunch of stuff. These differences make licensing television deals way different. Ignore typos it's late. tl;dr performance rights for music are outsourced to performance rights organizations which facilitate playing music online/on the radio. TV has way more complicated broadcasting licenses.


Answer

This has nothing to do with infrastructure as some suggest and has everything to do with rights. Rights for streaming TV stations are horribly complicated. Local stations are rebroadcasting video some of which they have broadcast rights to, some of which they license from the national network. Moreover they may have very specific rights in some cases and the people they get that license from may not have the right to sub license for Internet streaming. Worse sometimes rights have been broken down by device type (computer, mobile, etc.) Everyone wants to make this happen but consolidating all the rights take time and work and getting a lot of selfish people to agree. Apple recently tried to consolidate some rights and provide a service but were unable to get everyone to agree to something everyone was happy with.


Answer

I don't know the legality of live TV streaming but here are a few thoughts on the technical aspects. The major networks broadcast the same content over the air at the same time all across the country so streaming is not really necessary if you have an antenna. Also, the internet/network/server resources necessary to stream and rebroadcast video are considerably higher than streaming audio. Until recently many TV stations likely did not have the technology available to stream and rebroadcast live video.


Answer

I have a related question. Why isn't over the air television available to be streamed online? I can understand the networks not wanting to spend money on setting up the service but why did they shut down aereo and similar services which basically rebroadcast what I can already watch for free with an antenna.


Answer

TV rights are strongly tied down to geographical areas. Allowing people to stream TV would cause havoc with that system.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Radio in the United States

Originally the term "radio" only included transmissions freely received over-the-air, such as the AM and FM bands, now commonly called "terrestrial radio". However, the term has evolved to more broadly refer to streaming audio services in general, including subscription satellite, and cable and Internet radio.

Input

What socialism actually means.

Output

Answer

EDIT: Done Socialism is the social/democratic ownership of the means of production. It's considered bad because socialism took over a third of the world and was the biggest threat to the American way of life since Nazi Germany, and even then that was a European war. The rallying against socialism movement started when the US put the CPUS (Communist Party of the United States) on trial, and arrested them due to fears of an American Bolshevik revolution which would topple the capitalist system. URL_0 This event destroyed socialist leadership. It was very public and served as a warning to ALL socialists in America. This is the origin of socialism's lack of precedence in the US and its hatred. Socialism is no longer practiced by any countries except Cuba. Europe is not socialist, but a Social Democracy. Now, I want to explain what the definition of socialism means, and I am a socialist and have been for a few years now. Social/Democratic ownership. This means that society as a whole has ownership, and society can democratically control whatever they own. Think of a table of kindergarteners and they have a box of crayons in the middle. This type of ownership would look like 5 of the kids voting that they use yellow to color the sun, while 3 kids vote for the sun to be colored green. Because 5 > 3, they color the sun yellow. This is opposed to capitalism's private ownership, where instead of society as a whole having ownership, it is one person or a group of people. Next, means of production, the thing that society is owning. Means of production means any facility, resource, or tool that can create a physical and tangible product. Factories, assemblies, oil, uranium, trees, maybe even basic tools like a hammer and nails. (though sometimes the tools are considered too insignificant to qualify) Under socialism, personal property still exists. Family photos, heirlooms, personal belongings, and cars are things you can still privately own because they are NOT means of production. Money does not count as a means of production because it does not directly create a physical or tangible product. Rather, it is used as a medium to exchange for products created by the means of production. Ok, so thats the definition. Next I am going to talk a bit about the different types of socialism. Left Libertarianism: Anarchism and socialist minarchism. Contrary to popular belief, anarchism denotes a socialist economy unless specifically stated to be anarcho-capitalist. These socialist ideologies actually make up the most of the socialist community right now. Most socialists are libertarian socialists. Democratic Socialism: A type of socialism where a representative democracy like what all western civilizations have now is used alongside a socialist economy. Contrary to another popular belief, Europe is not democratic socialist, and one of the more famous examples of this was the Paris Commune. Market Socialism: I'm not a market socialist and I'm not too clear what the exact mechanics are here, but socialism does not always mean planned economy. This ideology wants socialism AND free market to coexist. Market socialists, feel free to expand on this. Marxist Socialism: I don't really want to call this a well fleshed out ideology, because Marxism was a critique of capitalism, not really an ideology of socialism in itself. However, Karl Marx did vaguely go over his idea of socialism. > Karl Marx had said in his works that socialism is ONLY possible if the transitioning country is INDUSTRIALIZED and DEVELOPED. > His thought process on how society would transition was something like this: > **PreCap(feudalism?)** **- > ** > **Capitalism(industrialization/developing)** **- > ** > **Proletarian Revolution** **- > ** > **Socialist state** **- > ** > **Abolishment of state(communism)** Leninist Socialism/all derivatives(Marxist Leninism, Maoism, etc)/Communism: BEFORE I explain this, I must first note something that even socialists get wrong. The word 'communism' is a capitonym. This means that its definition changes based on capitalization. 'C'ommunism is what I will be talking about right here. It refers to Leninist states or states with a vanguard/Communist Party. 'c'ommunism on the otherhand, means stateless, classless, moneyless society. It is the end goal of most socialist ideologies, including the one I am going to talk about here. So, Leninism/Communism is when the 'best of the best' of the workers take control of the government and establish a Communist or Vanguard Party, which should mean a technocracy because the government is controlled by the workers, but this elite group in the government, the state, owns everything as opposed to society. This is justified by saying that the technocratic government is representing the interests of society, so it is social and democratic ownership by an extension. Unlike Marx's idea of socialism where socialism can only be achieved in a developed capitalist state, Leninism was practiced ONLY in undeveloped, newly capitalist or precapitalist states. Lenin seemed fine with this, but he agreed with Marx that the best place for revolution was in a developed country. (which at the time of the early 1900's was Germany) Additionally, when the 'conditions' are 'right' (world socialism has been achieved) the state 'withers away' and the end goal of 'c'ommunism is achieved. In Leninism, there is supposed to be a counteracting 'checks and balances' system called the soviet councils. These are councils across the country made up of workers. Just like how in the US the courts scale all the way to the Supreme court, the councils scale all the way to the Supreme Soviet. This was supposed to exist to counteract the power of the Communist Party. When Stalin came along, he consolidated his power by stripping many of the capabilities of the soviets, including the Supreme Soviet, so that the checks and balances was weak to nonexistent. Next, Social Democracy: Social Democracy technically means 2 different things. It originally meant socialist reformism: the idea that socialism can be attained through reforming of the current system. Social Democracy calls for the reform of our system to democratic socialism. This was unpopular at that time (1800-early 1900's) as most socialists were revolutionaries and believed that the only way for socialism to exist is through a revolution. (democratic socialism was still popular, but most supporters were revolutionaries) Now? Social democracy means a powerful welfare state and a government that actively looks after their citizens. Progressive taxes, free healthcare and education, some state ownership, all hallmarks of a social democracy. This definition of social democracy is NOT socialist, nor does it actually want to be socialist. I'm not going to talk about how socialism could be good or bad for Americans, or how if it works well with other countries, because it seems to boil to opinion and semantics on what 'works well' and 'good and bad' means. If someone wants to share their opinion, yeah go ahead, but OP you will always get a different response. I will finish this off with a real ELI5 example to help understand socialism:


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> The concept of socialism is incredibly warped in the west, almost entirely as a bad thing. No, not in the West. Just in the US.


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> almost entirely as a bad thing That's not necessarily the case in many countries in Europe, where it's mostly viewed as another political orientation; like the green, conservative, liberal or christian-democratic movements; which exist in many European countries. But I suspect that this perception is equally inaccurate in it's depiction of socialism in it's original form


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Socialism means that the means of production (factories, farms, etc) are controlled by the workers. So how can that manifest in practice? Well you could have market socialism, for instance. In this case, you'd have a free market just like you do now, but a company would be jointly owned by everyone who worked for it, and the leadership would be elected democratically. If democracy works for states, why not companies? Another option might be a centrally planned economy with a democratically elected government. The "democratically elected" part is key, because if the people doing the planning aren't held accountable to the workers, then its not really worker control of the means of production. This is why many socialists would say that the Soviet Union was 'state capitalist' - the means of production were privately controlled by a single ruling party.


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Socialism at its rawest form is everyone collectively trying to help each other. However, just like democracy where everyone is suppose to get one vote, it doesn't necessarily work out in its rawest form. So what you end up with are different takes on Socialism. Social democracy is probably what you have heard the most of recently if you have heard of Bernie Sanders and references to Nordic countries. In Social democracy the economy is still ran in a capitalist economy, meaning private ownership (still some public however), and companies ran how the owners want, but government usually taxes them heavily to provide social programs like education, housing, healthcare, minimum wages and so forth. Marxism-Leninism is the other style of socialism. Where one person or a small party is in charge as a dictatorship (so no removing them), the economy is ran under communism ideologies, so the government owns and controls most of the needs of production, wages, food supplies and everything. And then you can find other types as well, like China which is a dictatorship, that has allowed capitalist ideologies into the countries, but any powerful company is usually going to have a communist party member inserted into their company to watch things.


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There's no more distorted view of what "socialism" is than what you have probably picked up in the American public. **Neither Europe nor any other 1st world county is socialist** or even anywhere near to being socialist. The idea that socialism could be a threat to American freedom is just one big fake concept that some people are holding the American public hostage with. You might have heard that Europe is socialist because we get free health care, maternity leave or lots of paid days off. It's almost embarassing that politicans feel like they can actually get away with non-sense like that; maybe they even believe what they are saying but that would be even worse, I guess. These benefits are just as much part of our society as the government buildings roads and highways.


Provenance

Wikipedia article: Types of socialism

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist economic systems can be further divided into market and non-market forms. The word thus refers to a broad range of theoretical and historical socioeconomic systems and has also been used by many political movements throughout history to describe themselves and their goals, generating numerous types of socialism.

Input

If I were on the moon during a total lunar eclipse, and looked up at the Earth, what would I see? Why?

Output

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You would see a solar eclipse. The earth is in between the moon and sun, so if you were on the moon you would see the earth with the sun behind it.


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You'd see something [like this]( URL_0 ). Because the earth has an atmosphere, you'd see a red ring around the earth. This would be the sunset/sunrise zone around the earth. The red sunset color is responsible for coloring the moon red during the eclipse [like this]( URL_2 ). Also you&